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In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen

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In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Dec 2018, 04:14
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In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on Partoria's roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest trucks—those with three trailers—had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?


(A) No matter what changes Partoria makes in the regulation of trucking, it will have to keep smaller roads off-limits to all large trucks.

(B) So far only the best, most experienced drivers for Partorian trucking companies have been driving triple-trailer trucks.

(C) Very few fatal collisions involving trucks in Partoria are collisions between two trucks.

(D) In Partoria, the safety record of the trucking industry as a whole has improved slightly over the past ten years.

(E) In Partoria, the maximum legal payload of a triple-trailer truck is less than three times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single-trailer trucks.


Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

Originally posted by RisingForceX on 21 Jul 2009, 01:48.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Dec 2018, 04:14, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2009, 04:34
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Quote:
In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on Partoria's roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest trucks -those with three trailers- had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) No matter what changes Partoria makes in the regulation of trucking, it will have to keep smaller roads off-limits to all large trucks - Does not weaken the argument as the restriction applies to all large trucks
(B) So far only the best, most experienced drivers for Partorian trucking companies have been driving triple-trailer trucks - CORRECT. Suggests that the drivers of the should be replaced with more experienced drivers rather than the trucks
(C) Very few fatal collisions involving trucks in Partoria are collisions between two trucks.Out of scope
(D) In Partoria, the safety record of the trucking industry as a whole has improved slightly over the past ten years.Out of scope
(E) In Partoria, the maximum legal payload of a triple-trailer truck is less than three times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single-trailer trucks.Does not weaken the argument
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In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2009, 05:49
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My reasoning:

Trailers types :

1 trailer
2 trailer
(largest) 3 trailer - fewer accidents than others

What could be the reason - largest are better option for transportation, the drivers that drive largest trucks are better(actually best among the drivers), or they drive on the routes which are less vulnerable to accidents. There could be more reasons but I just picked 3 and the last one, referring to route, is also not relevant as it is neither discussed in the passage nor given as an option.

Passage picked the first reason. How can it be weakened? Only if we can prove that other reason was there and not the one picked.

So, B points to the second reason.
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In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2010, 08:38
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Ans B

Why Not E: The argument is not talking about the maximum/minimum capabilities of trucks nor the loading capacities rather the argument is about the safety scenario regarding the usage of small/big trucks.

Option B says the assumed safety of largest trucks is not due to truck themselves rather depends upon the driver..!!
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2010, 12:40
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B it is.

the author says that if deaths have to be reduced in partoria then people should use more of triple trailer trucks (they are more safer).

Option B weakens the argument by pointing out that the triple trailer trucks are driven by the most experienced drivers. Hence, the deaths are less in case of triple trucks because they are driven by experienced derivers and not because the triple trucks are any special or safe.
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New post 31 Jul 2011, 11:32
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RisingForceX wrote:

Question - stem

In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on Partoria's roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest trucks -those with three trailers- had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks.

Accident rate = (total number of accidents)/(total number of miles driven)
LT(1+2+3 -trailer) - 6% miles, 12% fatalities
accident rate - (3-trailer) < (1/3)(1-T) and (3-trailer) < (1/3)(2-T)
Conclusion - (3T use ++) leads to (deaths --)


Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) No matter what changes Partoria makes in the regulation of trucking, it will have to keep smaller roads off-limits to all large trucks.
Road size is not linked to deaths - Wrong
(B) So far only the best, most experienced drivers for Partorian trucking companies have been driving triple-trailer trucks.
ok - another reason for less deaths - less experienced drivers drive the 1T/2T trucks resulting in less accidents and not because of something in 3T trucks - If the more experienced driver had driven 1T/2T trucks, they would also have had lower accident rate -> lower accidents -> lower deaths
(C) Very few fatal collisions involving trucks in Partoria are collisions between two trucks.
Does not differentiate the collision b/w 1T/2T/3T trucks
(D) In Partoria, the safety record of the trucking industry as a whole has improved slightly over the past ten years.
No information about differences in collision of 1T/2T/3T trucks
(E) In Partoria, the maximum legal payload of a triple-trailer truck is less than three times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single-trailer trucks.
Payload is not affecting the accidents/deaths as per the argument directly/inference

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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2011, 11:57
krishp84 wrote:
RisingForceX wrote:

Question - stem

In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on Partoria's roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest trucks -those with three trailers- had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks.

Accident rate = (total number of accidents)/(total number of miles driven)
LT(1+2+3 -trailer) - 6% miles, 12% fatalities
accident rate - (3-trailer) < (1/3)(1-T) and (3-trailer) < (1/3)(2-T)
Conclusion - (3T use ++) leads to (deaths --)




Let's assume 1-T, 2-T and 3-T all travel equal number of miles and for the ease of calculation let's also assume that 1-T and 2-T were involved in 6 accidents/mile each.
Then,
accident rate (3-T) < (1/3)(1-T) = (1/3)*6 = 2; accident rate(3-T) < 2/mile
accident rate (3-T) < (1/3)(1-T) = (1/3)*6 = 2; accident rate(3-T) < 2/mile
Total accident rate (3-T) <4/mile. This is still less than the what it is for 1-T and 2-T
What am I missing over here?
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New post 31 Jul 2011, 12:17
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UtterNonsense wrote:
Let's assume 1-T, 2-T and 3-T all travel equal number of miles and for the ease of calculation let's also assume that 1-T and 2-T were involved in 6 accidents/mile each.
Then,
accident rate (3-T) < (1/3)(1-T) = (1/3)*6 = 2; accident rate(3-T) < 2/mile
accident rate (3-T) < (1/3)(1-T) = (1/3)*6 = 2; accident rate(3-T) < 2/mile
Total accident rate (3-T) <4/mile. This is still less than the what it is for 1-T and 2-T
What am I missing over here?


Rule 1 - Please DO NOT ASSUME anything in question stem in CR

In this question, Large trucks are involved in 6% of miles driven
It is the average of (1T,2T,3T) large trucks...Nowhere in the question is it given the differentiation among 1T/2T/3T trucks the number of miles driven, so how can you assume they have driven the same miles?

Your Assumption was FALSE...You did not understand the question stem...That is what you were missing.
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2013, 00:13
This question appeared as the first question Verbal section of my GMAT Prep Test 1 , and I got it wrong. Option B looked good to me but option E appealed more.
Can somebody, experts, please explain why option E is incorrect? If the payload of the largest trucks is less , doesn't it mean that they are less prone to accidents than smaller trucks which in addition to being small are carrying more loads?
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New post 16 Jul 2013, 00:48
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nitin6305 wrote:
This question appeared as the first question Verbal section of my GMAT Prep Test 1 , and I got it wrong. Option B looked good to me but option E appealed more.
Can somebody, experts, please explain why option E is incorrect? If the payload of the largest trucks is less , doesn't it mean that they are less prone to accidents than smaller trucks which in addition to being small are carrying more loads?


To answer your question:
No. The text does not say anything like that, yours is an additional assumption.

We want to weaken that "one way for partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to reduce shippers to increase their use of triple trucks."

E talks about the maximum payload
E. In patoria, the maximum legal payload of a trailer truck is less than three times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single trailer trucks.
that is nowhere mentioned in the passage, so we cannot infer that is connected somehow to the incidents.

B on the other hand says that
B. so far only the best, most experienced drivers for Patorian trucking companies have been driving triple trailer trucks.
so the data on which the conclusion is based ("The very largest trucks those with three trailers had less than a third of the accident rate of single and double trailer trucks.") is not reliable, so the whole argument is weakened.

Hope it's clear
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2013, 03:34
@blueseas: I meant to say that option E gives one reason for the reduced accident rate for very large trucks like option B does.
@zarrolou: Weaken question always have information which is alien to stimulus like option B which talks about drivers but the stimulus provides us no information about the same.
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New post 16 Jul 2013, 03:55
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nitin6305 wrote:
@blueseas: I meant to say that option E gives one reason for the reduced accident rate for very large trucks like option B does.


In the nation of partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on partoria's roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The verylargest trucks those with three trailers had less than a third of the accident rate of single and double trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to reduce shippers to increase their use of triple trucks.

which of the following, if true, Most seriously weakensthe argument ?


B. so far only the best, most experienced drivers for Patorian trucking companies have been driving triple trailer trucks.:
this option tells us that drivers who drive the triple trailer truck...they are the best and the most experienced....and that is the reason accident rate with these type of truck is less and not because..these types of trucks are safe.

E. In patoria, the maximum legal payload of a trailer truck is less than three times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single trailer trucks.
now in this option ...it is talking about the maximum payload....but how can we connect this payload thing with accident rate...it can also be possible that more the payload more the stable and easy to manoeuvre trailer is....but cannot directly relate to accident rate.
moreover...it says that maximum load it can take...it doesnt say IT ALWAYS HAS TO TAKE THAT MUCH LOAD...so in no way it weakens.


hope it helps
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2013, 09:45
RisingForceX wrote:
In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on Partoria's roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest trucks -those with three trailers- had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks.


P : Accidents occur due to Large trucks ( All T1 , T2 and T3 )

P : T3 contributed to approximately 33% accidents , whereas T1 and T2 contributed 67% of the accidents.


C : Hence T3 must be favoured


The author doesn't take into consideration the expertise of the drivers while reaching the conclusion .

It is possible that when T3 drivers are used to drive the T1 and T2 trucks accidents might be reduced...

Thus expertise of the Drivers must be the point of consideration , coz trucks don't travel on their own they are driven by Humans...
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2014, 22:59
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Conclusion:
according to argument we could reduce the number of accidents by increasing the use of 3 trailer trucks and reducing the use 1 and 2 trailers truck .

If we could prove that we can reduce the number of accidents by method other than mentioned in the conclusion, Then that would be the answer choice.

Choice B correctly states that we can reduce the number of accidents by hiring experienced drivers for 1 and 2 trailers truck also
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2017, 16:03
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let us break the argument down -

Premise
Large trucks - 6% of the miles driven BUT 12% of fatalities. (Seems to imply that trucks are more dangerous than other types of vehicles).
three trailer trucks have 1/3rd fatality rate of other large trucks

Conclusion
Use triple trailer trucks --> Reduce accidents

We have been asked to weaken the conclusion, i.e. to point out that this proposal may not lead to the conclusion - Reduce accidents.

A - Incorrect.
The objective here is to reduce fatalities caused by other large trucks by replacing them with triple trailer trucks. Since those roads are anyways not accessible to other large trucks also, this point is irrelevant.
If the accident rates on other roads are reduced, that would lead us to the conclusion - Reduce accidents.

"some smaller roads off limits" - the word "some" is vague. What if only 0.1% of the roads are off limits? Then this issue has no statistical significance on the argument.

B - correct answer.
this weakens the conclusion by giving an Alternate Cause for the premise that -
triple trailer trucks are safe --> hence, 1//3rd accident rate

this gives us reason to believe that triple trailer trucks themselves may not be safe, but the lower fatality rate is due to better drivers.
If this is the case, we can say that using more of triple trailer trucks will NOT necessarily reduce fatalities on the road.

C - incorrect.
Still, this answer option does not change the fact that 12% of fatalities are from trucks. Those accidents may be between trucks and other vehicles then (since the truck to truck number is low)

D - Incorrect.
Does not mean that the conclusion -
"One way to reduce accidents is to use triple trailer trucks" is untrue.

E - Incorrect.
it should read "maximum legal payload of triple trailer trucks"

We have no idea how "legal payload" relates to "accident rates" or whether these limits are imposed or followed.
Hence, irrelevant.
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New post 03 Nov 2019, 19:22
VeritasKarishma please help with opt E... if payload (meaning carrying capacity) of 3 trailer truck is less than 1 or 2 trailer truck then ppl would require more 3 trailer trucks than 1 or 2 trailer truck to carry same weight and thus there would be more 3 trailer truck (increasing the overall accident rate)
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2019, 09:29
From Option E, all we can deduce is that the largest trucks can carry more weight. There is no correlation between payload and accidents here. However option B gives us the correlation we are looking for.
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2019, 09:34
kj1993 wrote:
VeritasKarishma please help with opt E... if payload (meaning carrying capacity) of 3 trailer truck is less than 1 or 2 trailer truck then ppl would require more 3 trailer trucks than 1 or 2 trailer truck to carry same weight and thus there would be more 3 trailer truck (increasing the overall accident rate)


Let's see if I can help you:

Let us consider the maximum payload capacity of single-trailer is 100 kg.
We will assume that the truck is always running in full load condition.
As per the statement the payload is less than three times the payload of single trailer. Let us consider the payload is 2 times - 200 kg.
Now lets say there are in total 12 single trailer trucks and 7 triples trailer. SIngle trailer reduces to 6 triple trailer trucks. Thus total triple trailer now are 13.

Accident rate single and double = say 15%
Accident rate of triple = less than third = 4%


A little vague calculation: previously accidents = (0.15* 12 + 0.04 *7) = 2.08

Current accidents = 0.04*13 = 0.52

Thus we can see that the accident rates have drastically decreased.

I know the calculations are not perfect and there are loads of assumptions. But I hope you get the idea!
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Re: In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percen   [#permalink] 07 Nov 2019, 09:34
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