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# In the past decade, rapid technological progress

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28 Oct 2018, 07:51
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In the past decade, rapid technological progress and a greater demand for high-quality digital imaging have led to dramatic advances in video display technology. The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).

LCDs apply thin-film transistors (TFTs) of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon sandwiched between two glass plates. The TFTs supply voltage to liquid-crystal-filled cells, or pixels, between the sheets of glass. When hit with an electric charge, the liquid crystals untwist to an exact degree to filter white light generated by a lamp. This filtered light shines directly on the viewing screen or, in the case of projection televisions, is projected through a small chip that acts as a lens. LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.

The nature and functioning of LCD displays present many advantages relative to other display technologies. The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma. The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burning. Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision. As a result, LCD TVs are considered the best display platform for video games, high definition television, movie special effects, and other graphics intensive uses.
1. The process through which an LCD monitor displays different colors is most closely analogous to

A. An hourglass partially blocked such that a limited stream of grains of sand fall into the lower portion
B. A series of filters that separate all of the components of a mixture according to size
C. A recording studio soundproofed so that any performances within are muted to those outside
D. A piece of construction paper with outlines of characters cut out such that a lamp in front of the paper casts shadows in the shapes of the characters
E. An air vent that emits warmer air outside of a building while an air conditioning system cools the interior of the building

2. It can be inferred from the passage that an LCD monitor would utilize the most electrical power when displaying

A. a movie scene of a NASCAR race with many computergenerated special effects
B. the introduction sequence for a World War II video game
D. a photorealistic screen saver of a bouquet of flowers
E. a filmed scene set inside a cave with minimal lighting

3. The passage indicates that each of the following may be considered an advantage of LCD displays relative to other display technologies EXCEPT

A. they consume less power
B. they generally have more pixels per square inch of the display
C. they are able to display continuous video graphics images with no interruption
D. they reflect a widely adopted standard
E. they represent the latest, most advanced technology

4. The tone of the passage could best be described as

B. historical discussion
C. objective explanation
D. intellectual exploration
E. qualified support

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28 Oct 2018, 20:37

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions

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29 Oct 2018, 06:16
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Please explain the question no 3 and 4
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29 Oct 2018, 19:51
Please explain the 3rd and 4th question.
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29 Oct 2018, 20:18
pls explain answer to all questions...
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30 Oct 2018, 07:11
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION for Question 1

This question asks which is most analogous to the process through which an LCD display presents different colors. The fifth and sixth sentences of the second paragraph read, “LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.”This process of subtraction consists of taking a large number of elements, in this case wavelengths of light, and carefully blocking out certain of them while allowing only certain others to get through. We should look for an answer that mirrors this
precise process of subtraction.
(A) This answer choice describes a process that does not result in only certain elements passing through. Each grain of sand is equally capable of falling through the hourglass; in fact, all of it will eventually pass through, although it will happen at a slower rate than it might because it the opening is partially blocked.
(B) A series of filters that separate out all of the elements of a mixture is not analogous to filtering out only certain elements and letting others "pass through" to together create the end result.
(C) A soundproofed recording studio blcoks all sound, not only certain elements of it. Hence, this is very different from the process described regarding an LCD display.
(D) CORRECT. A piece of construction paper with outlines of characters cut out would allow certain spaces of light to pass while blocking others, resulting in arefined mixture that has a certain meaning (e.g. the word, “Apple”). This is closely analogous to the process of subtraction through which LCD displays different colors.
(E) An air vent that expels warm air does not carefully select remaining elements, and all of the elements that pass through are indistinguishable from each other.
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30 Oct 2018, 07:12
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION for Question 2.

The third and fourth sentences of the second paragraph of the passage indicate that, in LCD displays, electricity is used to untwist liquid crystals in order to filter white light from a lamp. Also the second sentence of the third paragraph reads that “the amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes . . . “ As a result, it can be inferred that LCDs require more electricity to produce dark images as opposed to lighter images. The correct answer choice will involve a set of images that have a high degree of darkness, and thus a high level of electricity use.
(A) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display computer-generated special effects than any other images, or that these special effects are dark images.
(B) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display video game graphics than any other images, or that these graphics are dark images.
(C) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display video game graphics than any other images; further, a "bright" image cannot also be dark.
(D) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display photorealistic images than any other images, or that these images are dark images.
(E) CORRECT. A filmed scene set inside a cave with minimal lighting would certainly be classified as a dark image, which we can infer will use more electricity than a lighter image.
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30 Oct 2018, 07:15
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION for Question 3.

This is a specific question that asks us which answer choice is not indicated in the passage as an advantage of LCD displays relative to other display technologies. In order to answer this question, one must examine each answer choice and determine if it is mentioned in the passage.
(A) The second sentence of the third paragraph reads, “The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma.” The passage indicates that LCD displays consume less power than other display technologies.
(B) The fourth sentence of the third paragraph reads, “Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision.” The passage indicates that LCD displays generally have more pixels per square inch.
(C) The third sentence of the third paragraph reads, “The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burn-in.” The passage indicates that LCD displays can present video graphics images with no flicker or interruption.
(D) The second sentence of the first paragraph reads, “The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).” The passage indicates that the technology is a widely adopted standard, which would logically have certain advantages (e.g. the technology has been widely tested and is known to work).
(E) CORRECT. While the passage indicates that LCDs are the result of rapid technological progress in the past decade and the dominant technology currently used, the passage does not indicate that LCDs are the most advanced technology. There may be a more cutting edge technology (e.g. LEDs, or Light Emitting Diodes) available for certain applications. Also, the passage does not cite any specific functional advantage to being the latest and most advanced.
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30 Oct 2018, 07:16
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION for Question 4.

This is a general question that asks about the tone of the passage. In order to answer this question, it is useful to briefly examine and summarize the respective paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: LCDs have become the dominant display technology in the past decade.
Paragraph 2: LCDs function by channeling electricity to untwist crystals to block light in order to form colors.
Paragraph 3: LCDs present advantages relative to other display technologies, particularly for certain uses.
The correct answer will effectively identify the tone adopted in these paragraphs.
(A) It is too strong to categorize the author's tone as "advocacy," as the first two paragraphs are purely explanatory. The third paragraph, though listing advantages of LCD displays, does not advocate their use.
(B) Although the first paragraph does mention the time frame and context of the development of LCD displays, neither the second nor third paragraph could be classified as part of a historical discussion, and no contrast is drawn. Thus, it would be inaccurate to characterize the tone of the passage as that of a historical discussion.
(C) CORRECT. The passage objectively explains the background, functioning, and advantages of LCD displays.
(D) The passage does not indicate any questioning, skepticism, or exploration in its text, and is more technical than intellectual in tone.
(E) Although one could argue that the passage implicitly approves of the development of this new technology, the passage does not advocate for a particular point of view, and there is no evidence of any qualification in its explanation of the functioning and advantages of LCD displays.
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30 Oct 2018, 07:19
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winner2018 wrote:
pls explain answer to all questions...

I have posted OE for all the questions.Please have a look
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Re: In the past decade, rapid technological progress &nbs [#permalink] 30 Oct 2018, 07:19
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