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# In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe

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In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 10:36
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In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into imperialism. For the first time, the nation secured overseas lands, dominions too thickly populated to be adapted for the purposes of colonization. By earlier conquests and purchases such as those of Louisiana, Florida, Texas, California, and New Mexico, the United States had secured relatively empty territories, which a flow of emigrants from the Eastern States of the US could rapidly Americanize. But in Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Hawaii, there was never a serious attempt to colonize on the part of the American citizens. The reasons behind these conquests were similar to the ones that led to the European partition of Africa in the 19th century. The year 1898 indeed represented a strong shift in the foreign policy.

Even though in the years after the Civil War (1861-1865), Denmark offered to sell St. Thomas and St. Johns cheaply, the United States refused to purchase them, and declined to annex San Domingo or to entertain Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory. In 1893, instead of annexing Hawaii, the US attempted to bolster up the sovereignty of the native Queen. Then suddenly Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam were annexed; Hawaii was incorporated and Samoa was divided with Germany. America finally abandoned isolationism for good.

In part, this change in foreign policy was due to military considerations. The possession of Hawaii, Panama and Guantanamo in Cuba was obviously necessary for the defense of America’s coasts. Just as the Monroe Doctrine was intended to protect the country from the approach of great military powers, so these new acquisitions were desired to pre-empt close-lying bases, from which fleets in enemy possession could assail the country’s trade or cut off its communication. Such strategic considerations, however, do not explain the whole of the new imperialistic policy. Economic motives played a greater part. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, merchants had begun to think in terms of foreign markets and the US financiers in terms of foreign investments. The growing population had made increasing demands upon food products, leaving less to be exported, and at the same time exports of manufactures had increased. Many citizens believed that the United States could not afford to adhere to a policy of isolation while other nations were reaching out for the command of new markets.

1. Which of the following statements best explains America’s sudden shift from isolationism to imperialism?

A) America was becoming a manufacturing nation, requiring markets for the disposal of surplus products.

B) The United States had an over-exaggerated opinion on the progress made towards industrialization.

C) Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe.

D) America required overseas territorial possessions in order to encroach on the lands of its enemies.

E) The United States changed its foreign policy because the country was undergoing a commercial and industrial revolution.

2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the third paragraph of the passage?

A) to explain how military considerations were responsible for the rise of imperialism.

B) to describe the foundations of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on America.

C) to outline the territories affected by America's foreign policy decisions in the post-Civil War years.

D) to use the Monroe Doctrine as a metaphor for America's growing imperialism.

E) to provide the major and minor reasons behind the United States' policy shift in 1898.

3. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the passage?

A) The United States did not actively pursue new territories until 1898.

B) America declined Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory for largely economic reasons.

C) The United States was threatened by the economic success of countries such as Panama and Cuba.

D) Prior to 1898, the United States political leadership had largely pursued an isolationist strategy.

E) The motivations of American financiers were influenced at least in part by the military.

4. Which of the following is the author's overall goal in composing this passage?

A) To discuss the various changes in the US foreign policy at the end of the 19th century.

B) To present the reasons responsible for a new foreign policy development in a historical context.

C) To ascribe a shift in the US foreign policy to economic as well as militaristic considerations.

D) To contrast two different causes for a major adjustment in US foreign policy

E) To highlight the unfair annexation of three countries by the US during the late nineteenth century.

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In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2018, 01:33
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1
1. Which of the following statements best explains America’s sudden shift from isolationism to imperialism?

A. America was becoming a manufacturing nation, requiring markets for the disposal of surplus products.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage states that, "at the same time exports of manufactures had increased" but it's too far to suggest that American had not been a manufacturing nation prior to this policy shift.

B. The United States had an over-exaggerated opinion on the progress made towards industrialization.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This is entirely outside the scope of the passage. We do not know anything about the United States' own opinion on its progress.

C. Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Outside forces are only discussed as a threat in militaristic terms. There is nothing in the passage to indicate that the US was competing for markets and investment with rivals in Europe.

D. America required overseas territorial possessions in order to encroach on the lands of its enemies.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

While we are told that the possession of Hawaii, Panama and Guantanamo were done to protect certain aspects from enemy attack, we are given no information about America’s plan to encroach or intrude in to the land of its enemies.

E. The United States changed its foreign policy because the country was undergoing a commercial and industrial revolution.

Correct

The third paragraph focuses on the reasons why America became more imperialistic after the Civil War. It begins to attribute the shift to military and strategy reasons, before stating, "economic motives played a greater part." The author is largely placing the explanation for the shift as mostly due to economic changes in the wake of the Industrial Revolution.

2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the third paragraph of the passage?

A. to explain how military considerations were responsible for the rise of imperialism.

Incorrect: Partial scope

While the military is mentioned as one cause, so are economic considerations, and it is the latter that is emphasized. In addition, the scope of the passage isn't really "the rise" of imperialism. It is concerned with America's shift from isolationism to imperialism in the post-Civil War years. The shift itself is the focus, not the policy.

B. to describe the foundations of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on America.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This detail is mentioned in this paragraph, but it is not elaborated upon enough to make it the total focus of the paragraph. This paragraph is building upon the topic: America's move towards imperialism.

C. to outline the territories affected by America's foreign policy decisions in the post-Civil War years.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This is much closer to the purpose of the second paragraph. The third paragraph only mentions territories by name in the first sentence.

D. to use the Monroe Doctrine as a metaphor for America's growing imperialism.

Incorrect: Partial scope

The paragraph does do this, but this is not the purpose of the ENTIRE paragraph.

E. to provide the major and minor reasons behind the United States' policy shift in 1898.

Correct

The paragraph attempts to provide an explanation. The major reason is the economic concerns. The minor reason is the military concerns. The recent policy shift is the adjustment from isolationism to imperialism.

3. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the passage?

A. The United States did not actively pursue new territories until 1898.

Incorrect: Opposite

This is contradicted by the list of territories such as Louisiana and Florida.

B. America declined Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory for largely economic reasons.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We do not specifically know why the US declined Sweden's offer. But since this is the paragraph discussing America's pre-imperalist state, it is likely due to the fact that America had been isolationist ideologically, not economically disinterested.

C. The United States was threatened by the economic success of countries such as Panama and Cuba.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is nothing in the passage to support this statement. The economic success of these countries is not even mentioned in the passage.

D. Prior to 1898, the United States political leadership had largely pursued an isolationist strategy.

Correct

The passage states in the first sentence that "in the year 1898 that the United States made its earliest plunge into imperialism." The word "earliest" implies that prior to 1898, the United States had never been considered imperialist. Later in the passage, the author mentions "America had finally abandoned isolationism for good." It is reasonable to infer this was the dominate political ideology in terms of foreign policy prior to 1898.

E. The motivations of American financiers were influenced at least in part by the military.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The military and economic causes are mentioned in the same paragraph, but there is nothing to indicate that one influenced the other.

4. Which of the following is the author's overall goal in composing this passage?

A. To discuss the various changes in the US foreign policy at the end of the 19th century.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This choice is too broad. While 1898 is the end of the 19th century, multiple changes are not discussed. The passage focuses only on one major change: the shift from isolationism to imperialism.

B. To present the reasons responsible for a new foreign policy development in a historical context.

Correct

The author highlights why the US resorted to imperialism, which is the "new foreign policy development" discussed in this passage. The passage is primarily informational, so "present" is a verb that matches the author's tone. The mention of many past events as well as the year 1898 puts this discussion firmly in the past, or in a "historical context."

C. To ascribe a shift in the US foreign policy to economic as well as militaristic considerations.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This is the function of the third and final paragraph. The Main Idea of a passage must include ALL of the paragraphs and encompass the entire discussion.

D. To contrast two different causes for a major adjustment in US foreign policy

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice also focuses explicitly on the third paragraph. The earlier paragraphs discuss the fact of the shift itself and do not delve into the reasons. Look for a more neutral verb here. "Contrast" is too extreme to make sense with the entire passage.

E. To highlight the unfair annexation of three countries by the US during the late nineteenth century.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not give us any opinion on whether the annexation was fair or unfair. Also, the purpose of the passage is not limited to their annexation but also why the US resorted to it.

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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 13 Aug 2018, 20:01
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1
Notes:
Para 01 : What was happening in the year 1898 in context of the 1898-USA
Para 02 : The prelude events - 1898 - how USA remained isolationist
Para 03: The reasons for change : Isolationist to Imperialist ; Major : Economy & Minor: Defense

1. Which of the following statements best explains America’s sudden shift from isolationism to imperialism?

A) America was becoming a manufacturing nation, requiring markets for the disposal of surplus products. - this is partly true , they were also looking out for foreign investments.

B) The United States had an over-exaggerated opinion on the progress made towards industrialization. - USA's opinion is not mentioned in the passage . The passage only says USA mfg o/p is growing and getting surplus.

C) Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe. - Again this is not explicitly mentioned.

D) America required overseas territorial possessions in order to encroach on the lands of its enemies. - this is true , but according to the last paragraph this is not the only reason.

E) The United States changed its foreign policy because the country was undergoing a commercial and industrial revolution. - The passage clearly says "Economic motives played a greater part. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, merchants had begun to think in terms of foreign markets and the US financiers in terms of foreign investments. The growing population had made increasing demands upon food products, leaving less to be exported, and at the same time exports of manufactures had increased."

2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the third paragraph of the passage?

A) to explain how military considerations were responsible for the rise of imperialism. - Defense is only a part of the third paragraph.

B) to describe the foundations of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on America. - Again this is only a part of what of the third paragraph intends to say.

C) to outline the territories affected by America's foreign policy decisions in the post-Civil War years. - more outlined in 2nd paragraph. Some of those teretorries were acquired , but that is a part of defense strategy which is again the secondary reason for the aggregate policy shift.

D) to use the Monroe Doctrine as a metaphor for America's growing imperialism. - This is just an example to reason some new acquisitions as a part of defense strategy which is again the secondary reason for the aggregate policy shift.

E) to provide the major and minor reasons behind the United States' policy shift in 1898. - Third paragraph truly mentions two reasons. It also inherently classifies them as major and minor. "this change in foreign policy was due to military considerations..........................Such strategic considerations, however, do not explain the whole of the new imperialistic policy. Economic motives played a greater part.............................." ......Thus Major : Economy & Minor: Defence

3. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the passage?

A) The United States did not actively pursue new territories until 1898. - The whole RC starts exclusively saying that USA started its imperialistic view from 1898. Later the passage mentions that earlier than 1898..... USA declined all the opportunities to become imperialist. Hence, neither actively nor inactively it pursued imperialism. Rather , it remained isolationist. SO this option is going in the other way.

B) America declined Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory for largely economic reasons. - Although the 2nd paragraph mentions USA's denial to purchase WIT , but never mentioned the reason for denial.

C) The United States was threatened by the economic success of countries such as Panama and Cuba. - No !! The passage mentions that those two were defence strategic points.

D) Prior to 1898, the United States political leadership had largely pursued an isolationist strategy. - The 2nd para(entire) & the first paragraph(in part) mention the isolationist view of USA prior to 1898. Moreover, the whole RC starts exclusively with "In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into imperialism. For the first time, the nation secured overseas lands,....... "......... Hence the answer.

E) The motivations of American financiers were influenced at least in part by the military. - This is not mentioned in the passage. For policy shift, the author , however , has shown two clear causes : namely, economy & defense.

4. Which of the following is the author's overall goal in composing this passage?

A) To discuss the various changes in the US foreign policy at the end of the 19th century. - Definitely this is a reason, But this is a partial reason. The passage mainly wanted to discuss a policy change. In doing so it first explained the situation at a time frame,1898.... then provided some historical context & reasoning of the same prior to that time frame. And then finally have explained reasons why the change happened at that particular time.

B) To present the reasons responsible for a new foreign policy development in a historical context. - The passage mainly wanted to discuss a policy change. In doing so it first explained the situation at a time frame,1898.... then provided some historical context & reasoning of the same prior to that time frame. And then finally have explained reasons why the change happened at that particular time.AS per my analysis below is the structure of the RC:
Para 01 : What was happening in the year 1898 in context of the 1898-USA
Para 02 : The prelude events - 1898 - how USA remained isolationist
Para 03: The reasons for change : Isolationist to Imperialist ; Major : Economy & Minor: Defense

C) To ascribe a shift in the US foreign policy to economic as well as militaristic considerations. - This is explained in 3rd paragraph only.

D) To contrast two different causes for a major adjustment in US foreign policy - Again, this is explained in 3rd paragraph only.

E) To highlight the unfair annexation of three countries by the US during the late nineteenth century. - In the whole passage nowhere it was mentioned that any acquisition happened unfairly. Mentions of acquisitions are there ....... but that is not what the passage is about.
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Originally posted by u1983 on 13 Aug 2018, 19:13.
Last edited by u1983 on 13 Aug 2018, 20:01, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 19:52
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I got 3/4 correct in just over 8 minutes. Can someone explain why choice A in Q3 is wrong? I dangled between A and D and chose A incorrectly.
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 22:11
1
sandman13 wrote:
I got 3/4 correct in just over 8 minutes. Can someone explain why choice A in Q3 is wrong? I dangled between A and D and chose A incorrectly.

Quote:
In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into imperialism. For the first time, the nation secured overseas lands, dominions too thickly populated to be adapted for the purposes of colonization. By earlier conquests and purchases such as those of Louisiana, Florida, Texas, California, and New Mexico, the United States had secured relatively empty territories

sandman13

From the above excerpt, in the year 1898 United States secured overseas lands. By earlier conquests and purchases such as those of Louisiana, Florida, Texas, California, and New Mexico, the United States had secured relatively empty territories.

The presence of "By earlier conquests" implies that The United States pursued new territories before 1898. Hence option A cannot be inferred.
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2018, 01:27
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sandman13 wrote:
I got 3/4 correct in just over 8 minutes. Can someone explain why choice A in Q3 is wrong? I dangled between A and D and chose A incorrectly.

In 1898, the US sees a shift in foreign policy from isolationism to imperialism.. until 1898, it had been occupying empty states such as Texas, Florida, etc. but around the year 1898, US started occupying "thickly populated dominions". Hence A is wrong and D is right.

My mud map -(before 1898 -empty states (for colonizing)-isolationism; after 1898 -populated states (for military purposes, industrial revolution, etc) -imperialism)

@workout; please let me know if I missed or inferred incorrectly.
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2018, 10:32
Then suddenly Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam were annexed; Hawaii was incorporated and Samoa was divided with Germany. America finally abandoned isolationism for good.

The above statement made me chose answer choice c for question 1.

Can anyone please explain?
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In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2018, 22:05
workout For question#4 I marked C as correct.
Can you explain why C is wrong and why B is correct?
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2018, 02:41
2
Quote:
1. Which of the following statements best explains America’s sudden shift from isolationism to imperialism?

A) America was becoming a manufacturing nation, requiring markets for the disposal of surplus products.

B) The United States had an over-exaggerated opinion on the progress made towards industrialization.

C) Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe.

D) America required overseas territorial possessions in order to encroach on the lands of its enemies.

E) The United States changed its foreign policy because the country was undergoing a commercial and industrial revolution.

Lets look at this part of the passage.
Quote:
Such strategic considerations, however, do not explain the whole of the new imperialistic policy. Economic motives played a greater part.

This is what option 'E' says. Hence 'E' is the correct answer.

Quote:
2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the third paragraph of the passage?

A) to explain how military considerations were responsible for the rise of imperialism.

B) to describe the foundations of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on America.

C) to outline the territories affected by America's foreign policy decisions in the post-Civil War years.

D) to use the Monroe Doctrine as a metaphor for America's growing imperialism.

E) to provide the major and minor reasons behind the United States' policy shift in 1898.

A - author clearly says that military considerations were not the only reasons for the rise of imperialism. - INCORRECT
B - This passage does not discuss the foundation of industrial revolution in America - INCORRECT
C - Though discussed, this is not purpose of the 3rd paragraph. - INCORRECT
D - Monroe Doctrine links imperialism to military considerations and this is what author is trying to debunk, stating that economic motives are probably responsible for America's growing imperialism. - INCORRECT
E - This is the purpose - CORRECT

Quote:
3. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the passage?

A) The United States did not actively pursue new territories until 1898.

B) America declined Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory for largely economic reasons.

C) The United States was threatened by the economic success of countries such as Panama and Cuba.

D) Prior to 1898, the United States political leadership had largely pursued an isolationist strategy.

E) The motivations of American financiers were influenced at least in part by the military.

The whole passage is about America's policy shift from isolationism to imperialism and the year 1898 marked this paradigm shift as mentioned in the final statement of paragraph 1 . Hence 'D' is the correct answer.

Quote:
4. Which of the following is the author's overall goal in composing this passage?

A) To discuss the various changes in the US foreign policy at the end of the 19th century.

B) To present the reasons responsible for a new foreign policy development in a historical context.

C) To ascribe a shift in the US foreign policy to economic as well as militaristic considerations.

D) To contrast two different causes for a major adjustment in US foreign policy

E) To highlight the unfair annexation of three countries by the US during the late nineteenth century.

Tricky one. Options look so similar.

A - though discussed, this is not the overall goal. The overall goal is to ascribe this paradigm shift i.e. shift from isolationism to imperialism to economic considerations. - INCORRECT

B - Correct as discussed in A - CORRECT.
C - Author ascribes more to economic considerations than to military considerations - INCORRECT.
D & E are clearly incorrect
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2018, 00:59
5m50s, all correct. Thanks for your post
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Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe  [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2018, 08:38
In Question 1

1. Which of the following statements best explains America’s sudden shift from isolationism to imperialism?

A) America was becoming a manufacturing nation, requiring markets for the disposal of surplus products.

B) The United States had an over-exaggerated opinion on the progress made towards industrialization.

C) Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe.

D) America required overseas territorial possessions in order to encroach on the lands of its enemies.

E) The United States changed its foreign policy because the country was undergoing a commercial and industrial revolution.

The lines in the passage states that"Many citizens believed that the United States could not afford to adhere to a policy of isolation while other nations were reaching out for the command of new markets."

This statement clearly mentions that the other countries were reaching out for the command of New Markets. And America could no longer afford to a policy of isolation.

Option C mentions the same thing

C) Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe.

Even though passage does not mention Europe explicitly but it can not be the sole reason to reject this choice

Please help in understanding!!
Re: In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into impe   [#permalink] 30 Dec 2018, 08:38
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