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In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve

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In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Sep 2018, 09:42
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A
B
C
D
E

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In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.


A. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

B. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

C. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

D. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

E. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.


Was confused between B & D.
E-gmat could this example be a good choice to understand the verb-ing modifier concept?

Originally posted by vibhav on 24 Jul 2013, 06:45.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Sep 2018, 09:42, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2013, 13:54
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avohden wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

A. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

B. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

C. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

D. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

E. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Dear avohden
I'm happy to help. :-) This is a good question.

The adjective "they" in (A) & (E) is ambiguous. We know logically it has to refer to the "pension advance companies" but grammatically, it could refer to "those who have public pensions". Choice (E) also creates a very strong break between two verbs, "operate" and "are drawing", that really should be contrasted in parallel. Similarly, (A) doesn't maintain parallelism between them. These two are incorrect.

In (B), the modifier refers very clearly and appropriately to the "pension advance companies". This choice is promising.

In (C), we have false parallelism. This is a trap designed for folks who think about parallelism mechanically, ignoring the meaning of the sentence. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/parallelis ... orrection/
The subject of the verba "operate" and "are ... drawing" are the "pension advance companies", but the parallelism suggests otherwise. This is incorrect.

Choice (D) is perhaps the most tempting alternative to (B). The problem with (D) is subtle. Typically, when we have an independent clause, then a comma, then a participial phrase, the participial phrase, if it acting as noun-modifier, modifies the subject.
P did X to Q, doing Y.
In that construction, most typically P is the actor of the "doing Y" action.
In (D), this rule would suggest that "those who have public pensions" should be the subject of the participial phrases, but logically, we know it must be the "pension advance companies." Grammar & logic don't support the same conclusion --- that's always the sign of an incorrectly constructed sentence. We can reject (D).

The only possible answer is (B).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 17 Nov 2014, 22:27
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vibhav wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

a. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

b.are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

c.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

d.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

e. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Was confused between B & D.

E-gmat could this example be a good choice to understand the verb-ing modifier concept?

In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

a. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators,but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. not parallel

b.are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. The best

c.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. Change meaning, Wrong Subject

d.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. Wrong Subject

e. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. They : not clear
Answer is B
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2013, 09:20
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vibhav wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

a. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. not clear what noun "they" has replaced

b.are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. correct

c.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. public pension holders do not operate without...reguatlions

d.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. incorrect because it makes me believe that the prior clause leads to "operating...

e. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. same explanation as A

Was confused between B & D.

E-gmat could this example be a good choice to understand the verb-ing modifier concept?


Hope the above explanation helps.
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2013, 12:32
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Here is my explanation to the question

"being" is not incorrect in this kind of passive voice construction. Therefore A) and B) cannot be ruled out just because "being" is present.

In C) "are pursued" and "operate" are not the right objects in parallel. In almost nonsensically means that people, i.e veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others, "operate" rather than the companies.

D) is incorrect since "but" needs to follow a Independent Clause or another verb in parallel. "now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations" is a modifier and hence this option is incorrect.

E) the use of "who" to refer back to "companies" is incorrect.

Now between A) and B), both seems correct, one with essential modifier and another with non-essential modifier. "but" is followed correctly by an indenpendent clause in A), while B) has verb "are now drawing" parallel to "are being pursued".

Experts, please help in eliminating A) if it is possible to use any other reason to eliminate A) other than eliminating the option because of the ambiguous pronoun "they" .
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New post 24 Jul 2013, 15:09
vibhav wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

a. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

b.are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

c.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

d.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

e. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Was confused between B & D.

E-gmat could this example be a good choice to understand the verb-ing modifier concept?


Good meaning based question.

A - here the last element "but they are now drawing scrutiny" incorrectly refers back to "those with public pensions" instead of pension advance companies.

B - correct - in this sentence we have clear and proper meaning as we see that those with public pensions are "being pursued" while the pension advance companies "operate" and "are now drawing".

C- here all elements of the latter part of the sentence (are pursued, and operate, but are now drawing) incorrectly tie back to "those with public pensions" (plus they are not parallel in structure). The pension advance companies are the ones that "operate" and "are now drawing".

D- the modifying phrase "operating without...but now drawing" seems to (incorrectly) modify "those with public pensions" instead of the "pension advance companies".

E- the "they" in the final clause "they are now drawing scrutiny..." would tie back to the original subject of the sentence - "those with public pensions" but that doesn't represent the proper meaning that the pension advance companies are now drawing scrutiny.

KW
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2013, 10:32
Thanks Mike - I noticed you didn't speak about the 2-3 split between "are being pursued strongly" vs. "are pursued strongly". I couldn't determine what was wrong with "are pursued strongly" but it just didn't sit right with my ear.

Could I get your thoughts on if one is better than the other or if they are both acceptable and that split should be downplayed for other more obvious errors.
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2013, 10:40
Official Explanation

Answer is (B).
This sentence correction problem is mostly concerned with errors of sentence construction. The most obvious decision point – the choice between “are being pursued” and “are pursued” is not important as both could be used to describe the current situation.

In (A) the use of “they” in the last portion of the sentence is incorrect as it represents a reference error (the “they” seems to be referencing the people with pensions not the companies).

(B) is correct as the “which” clause makes it clear that the companies “operate without oversight….but are now drawing….”.

In (C) it is not the people with pensions that “operate without much oversight…”.

For (D), the use of the participle “operating” perpetuates the problem in (C) – it still modifies the subject (those with pensions) so is nonsensical as people would not operate without oversight.

In (E), the use of “they” in the second portion after the semicolon contains the same reference error as in (A).
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New post 09 Nov 2013, 18:09
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avohden wrote:
Thanks Mike - I noticed you didn't speak about the 2-3 split between "are being pursued strongly" vs. "are pursued strongly". I couldn't determine what was wrong with "are pursued strongly" but it just didn't sit right with my ear.

Could I get your thoughts on if one is better than the other or if they are both acceptable and that split should be downplayed for other more obvious errors.

Dear avohden,
Both of those are grammatically correct.
Those with public pension are pursued. Present tense, passive voice.
Those with public pension are being pursued. Present progressive tense, passive voice.
See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verbs ... ive-tense/
The two versions mean largely the same thing. The second, the progressive form, heightens the implication that this is happening right now --- this is a process in motion even as we are speaking about it. The underscores the urgency of the problem, so in the context of the sentence, the second is a little more natural, but the first is certainly not "wrong". That's why I ignored it in doing the splits, because it's not a decisive split in and of itself.
Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 10 Nov 2013, 00:28
A. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. - pronoun reference error.

B. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

C. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. - subject for operate should be people not companies.

D. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. - modifier error.

E. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations. pronoun error
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2014, 10:08
KyleWiddison wrote:
vibhav wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

a. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

b.are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

c.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

d.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

e. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Was confused between B & D.

E-gmat could this example be a good choice to understand the verb-ing modifier concept?


Good meaning based question.

A - here the last element "but they are now drawing scrutiny" incorrectly refers back to "those with public pensions" instead of pension advance companies.

B - correct - in this sentence we have clear and proper meaning as we see that those with public pensions are "being pursued" while the pension advance companies "operate" and "are now drawing".

C- here all elements of the latter part of the sentence (are pursued, and operate, but are now drawing) incorrectly tie back to "those with public pensions" (plus they are not parallel in structure). The pension advance companies are the ones that "operate" and "are now drawing".

D- the modifying phrase "operating without...but now drawing" seems to (incorrectly) modify "those with public pensions" instead of the "pension advance companies".

E- the "they" in the final clause "they are now drawing scrutiny..." would tie back to the original subject of the sentence - "those with public pensions" but that doesn't represent the proper meaning that the pension advance companies are now drawing scrutiny.

KW


Hi Kylee,

Could you please elaborate how is it that 'being' is used properly in this case?

Thanks
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New post 26 Jun 2014, 14:28
jlgdr wrote:
KyleWiddison wrote:
vibhav wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

a. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

b.are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

c.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

d.are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

e. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Was confused between B & D.

E-gmat could this example be a good choice to understand the verb-ing modifier concept?


Good meaning based question.

A - here the last element "but they are now drawing scrutiny" incorrectly refers back to "those with public pensions" instead of pension advance companies.

B - correct - in this sentence we have clear and proper meaning as we see that those with public pensions are "being pursued" while the pension advance companies "operate" and "are now drawing".

C- here all elements of the latter part of the sentence (are pursued, and operate, but are now drawing) incorrectly tie back to "those with public pensions" (plus they are not parallel in structure). The pension advance companies are the ones that "operate" and "are now drawing".

D- the modifying phrase "operating without...but now drawing" seems to (incorrectly) modify "those with public pensions" instead of the "pension advance companies".

E- the "they" in the final clause "they are now drawing scrutiny..." would tie back to the original subject of the sentence - "those with public pensions" but that doesn't represent the proper meaning that the pension advance companies are now drawing scrutiny.

KW


Hi Kyle,

Could you please elaborate how is it that 'being' is used properly in this case?

Thanks
Cheers
J


Being is often used in incorrect answer choices, but it can be used correctly, as in this question. The inclusion of "being" in the sentence above creates a sort of continuous/active tense. The pursuit that is described seems to be ongoing in nature and the meaning would be different/worse if we removed "being".

Here are some examples of incorrect uses of "being" (taken from this post: (usage-of-being-on-gmat-111592.html)
I was not aware of of the situation being so bad. (Better is: I was not aware that the situation was so bad.)
He was not interested in working hard, but being rich. (Better: He was interested not in working hard, but in becoming rich.)
The CFO suggested a reduction in the number of employees being assigned to the project. (Better: Simply remove "being.")

KW
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New post 26 Jun 2014, 14:29
bluecatie1 wrote:
@KyleWiddison... Quick question.. Does a participal modifier modify the subject of the sentence or the noun besides which it is located? Because judging from the above example it modifies the subject of the sentence... yet I was wondering whether this is always the case...


Maybe you could elaborate a bit on your question. Which modifying are you asking about and what do you think it is modifying?

KW
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2014, 23:27
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mikemcgarry wrote:
avohden wrote:
In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

A. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

B. are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

C. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

D. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

E. are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Dear avohden
I'm happy to help. :-) This is a good question.

The adjective "they" in (A) & (E) is ambiguous. We know logically it has to refer to the "pension advance companies" but grammatically, it could refer to "those who have public pensions". Choice (E) also creates a very strong break between two verbs, "operate" and "are drawing", that really should be contrasted in parallel. Similarly, (A) doesn't maintain parallelism between them. These two are incorrect.

In (B), the modifier refers very clearly and appropriately to the "pension advance companies". This choice is promising.

In (C), we have false parallelism. This is a trap designed for folks who think about parallelism mechanically, ignoring the meaning of the sentence. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/parallelis ... orrection/
The subject of the verba "operate" and "are ... drawing" are the "pension advance companies", but the parallelism suggests otherwise. This is incorrect.

Choice (D) is perhaps the most tempting alternative to (B). The problem with (D) is subtle. Typically, when we have an independent clause, then a comma, then a participial phrase, the participial phrase, if it acting as noun-modifier, modifies the subject.
P did X to Q, doing Y.
In that construction, most typically P is the actor of the "doing Y" action.
In (D), this rule would suggest that "those who have public pensions" should be the subject of the participial phrases, but logically, we know it must be the "pension advance companies." Grammar & logic don't support the same conclusion --- that's always the sign of an incorrectly constructed sentence. We can reject (D).

The only possible answer is (B).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Thanks a lot Mike. I marked D, but now I understand where I faltered. I didn't see any discussion happening over the usage of which and that. I eliminated B because it used "which". Shouldn't that be used instead of which here ?
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New post 16 Oct 2014, 11:46
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Thoughtosphere wrote:
Thanks a lot Mike. I marked D, but now I understand where I faltered. I didn't see any discussion happening over the usage of which and that. I eliminated B because it used "which". Shouldn't that be used instead of which here ?

Dear Thoughtosphere,
I'm happy to respond. :-) The word "which" is 100% correct in (B).
1) It clearly refers to the noun that it "touches" ---- "pension advance companies"
2) It is correctly separated with a comma
3) It serves at the subject of the clause that it introduces.
The word "which" is correct if all three of these criteria are true, and they are. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
You may also find this helpful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2014, 09:11
this may be somewhat off-topic, but is the phrase "In these difficult economic times" correct??

Wouldn't it have to be something like "In these economically difficult times"? as far as I can tell the meaning of this sentence is actually that the times are both difficult and economic, which makes no sense(??)
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New post 19 Nov 2014, 00:05
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Blackwhite wrote:
this may be somewhat off-topic, but is the phrase "In these difficult economic times" correct??

Wouldn't it have to be something like "In these economically difficult times"? as far as I can tell the meaning of this sentence is actually that the times are both difficult and economic, which makes no sense(??)


You are correct, saying "difficult and economic times" does not make sense and the sentence does seem like it could be saying that. Really, we have a situation where the two adjectives (difficult and economic) are working together to modify the noun (times). We view "difficult economic" like a single modifier for the word times. How were the times? They were difficult from an economic standpoint. If we wanted the adjectives to separately modify the noun, we would need to separate them with a comma. The phrase "difficult, economic times" would mean that the times were both difficult and economic, which makes no sense.

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New post 01 Jan 2015, 03:00
@KyleWiddison...Does a participal ("operating" which is used in option D ) modifier modify the subject of the sentence or the noun besides which it is located? Because judging from the above example it modifies the subject of the sentence... yet I was wondering whether this is always the case...
Can you please clarify on this
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New post 22 Jan 2015, 21:39
Shree9975 wrote:
@KyleWiddison...Does a participal ("operating" which is used in option D ) modifier modify the subject of the sentence or the noun besides which it is located? Because judging from the above example it modifies the subject of the sentence... yet I was wondering whether this is always the case...
Can you please clarify on this


When you have these types of modifiers (noun, + -ing) they will not modify the preceding noun but will modify the preceding clause.

Example:
Last night I was so tired I feel asleep on the couch, laying down on top of my computer.

Obviously "laying down..." doesn't modify couch and it doesn't really modify me as a noun, but it does modify that preceding clause, "last night I was so tired..."

Hope that helps.

KW
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 00:41
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In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

A> are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies that operate without much oversight from banking regulators, but they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

B> are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

C> are pursued strongly by pension advance companies and operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

D>are pursued strongly by pension advance companies, operating without much oversight from banking regulators but now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

E> are pursued strongly by pension advance companies who operate without much oversight from banking regulators; however, they are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

My question:
In option B :

There are two ways we can read this sentence:

1> In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

or

2> In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – veterans, mail workers, firemen, and others – are being pursued strongly by pension advance companies, which operate without much oversight from banking regulators but are now drawing scrutiny from several other government organizations.

Question 1> Is the second one correct since there is no comma before the word " but" ?

Question 2> let's it is having comma before but ( and let's forget the meaning of the sentence ),Then option 1 would be suitable. Am I right?

Question 3> let's it is having comma before but and let's concentrate on the meaning of the sentence ,Then option 1 would be wrong. Since "those who have public pensions" can not draw scrutiny from several other government organizations. Am I right?



Ravi
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Re: In these difficult economic times, those who have public pensions – ve &nbs [#permalink] 13 Apr 2016, 00:41

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