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It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental

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It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Oct 2019, 08:54
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 379, Date : 09-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


It has been suggested that post-World
War II concepts of environmental
liability, as they pertain to hazardous
waste, grew out of issues regarding
(5) municipal refuse collection and disposal
and industrial waste disposal in the
period 1880-1940. To a great degree, the
remedies available to Americans for
dealing with the burgeoning hazardous
(10) waste problem were characteristic of the
judicial, legislative, and regulatory tools
used to confront a whole range of
problems in the industrial age. At the
same time, these remedies were
(15) operating in an era in which the problem
of hazardous waste had yet to be fully
recognized.

It is understandable that an assessment
of liability was narrowly drawn and most
(20) often restricted to a clearly identified
violator in a specific act of infringement
of the property rights of someone else.
Legislation, for the most part, focused
narrowly on clear threats to the public
(25) health and dealt with problems of
industrial pollution meekly if at all.
Nevertheless, it would be grossly
inaccurate to assume that the actions of
American politicians, technologists,
(30) health officials, judges, and legislators in
the period 1880 -1940 have had little
impact on the attempts to define
environmental liability and to confront
the consequences of hazardous waste.
(35) Taken as a whole, the precedents of the
late nineteenth through the mid-
twentieth century have established a
framework in which the problem of
hazardous waste is understood and
(40) confronted today.

Efforts at refuse reform gradually
identified the immutable connection
between waste and disease, turning
eyesores into nuisances and nuisances
(45) into health hazards. Confronting the
refuse problem and other forms of
municipal pollution forced cities to
define public responsibility and
accountability with respect to the
(50) environment. The courts retained their
role as arbiter of what constituted private
and public nuisances, making it quite
clear that they were not going to be left
out of the process of defining
(55) environmental liability in the United
States. In the case of hazardous waste,
precedents for behavior and remedial
action were well developed by 1940.

1. The author's primary purpose is to discuss

A. contrasts in the legislative approaches to environmental liability before and after World War II
B. legislative trends which have been instrumental in the reduction of environmental hazardous waste
C. the historical and legislative context in which to view post-World War II hazardous waste problems
D. early patterns of industrial abuse and pollution of the American environment
E. the growth of an activist tradition in American jurisprudence


2. According to the passage, judicial assessments of liability in waste disposal disputes prior to World War II were usually based on

A. excessively broad definitions of legal responsibility
B. the presence of a clear threat to the public health
C. precedents derived from well-known cases of large-scale industrial polluters
D. restricted interpretations of property rights infringements
E. trivial issues such as littering, eyesores, and other public nuisances


3. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?

A. The growth of community responsibility for waste control exemplifies the tendency of government power to expand at the expense of individual rights.
B. Although important legal precedents for waste control were established between 1880 and 1940, today's problems will require radically new approaches.
C. While early court decisions established important precedents involving environmental abuses by industry, such equally pressing matters as disposal of municipal garbage were neglected.
D. Because environmental legislation between 1880 and 1940 was in advance of its time it failed to affect society's awareness of environmental problems.
E. The historical role of U.S. courts in defining problems of hazardous waste and environmental liability provides valuable traditions for courts today


4. The author mentions each of the following as pertaining to 1880-1940 America EXCEPT

A. the negligible contribution of technologists toward the problem of hazardous waste
B. the creation of precedents that would help future leaders address an environmental issue
C. the existence of regulatory tools to deal with industrial concerns
D. the forging of a link between the unsightly appearance and potential danger of industrial by-products
E. the incomplete recognition of the problems of hazardous waste


Originally posted by gmat1393 on 09 Oct 2019, 07:33.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 10 Oct 2019, 08:54, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (910).
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Re: It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2019, 07:47
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Re: It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2019, 02:00
In q-2, I am confused between answer B and D. Both statements are seen in the passage. Any explanation?
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Re: It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 20:01
1
Hea234ven wrote:
In q-2, I am confused between answer B and D. Both statements are seen in the passage. Any explanation?


fOR QUESTION 2 IN THE First sentence of second para it is directly stated that "It is understandable that an assessment
of liability was narrowly drawn and most
(20) often restricted to a clearly identified
violator in a specific act of infringement
of the property rights of someone else."

From here we can infer option D
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It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2019, 21:04
2. According to the passage, judicial assessments of liability in waste disposal disputes prior to World War II were usually based on

A. excessively broad definitions of legal responsibility- incorrect, excessively broad definition of legal responsibility is not discussed
B. the presence of a clear threat to the public health
C. precedents derived from well-known cases of large-scale industrial polluters - incorrect, the discussion of precedents is related to framework
D. restricted interpretations of property rights infringements
E. trivial issues such as littering, eyesores, and other public nuisances- incorrect

It is understandable that an assessment of liability was narrowly drawn and most often restricted to a clearly identified violator in a specific act of infringement
of the property rights of someone else.-->
Legislation, for the most part, focused narrowly on clear threats to the public health and dealt with problems of industrial pollution meekly if at all.

Q1- How can we infer that assessment in this statement is about judicial assessment?
Is it because the next statement talks about legislation? So, D is unlikely to be a judicial assessment?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis other experts - please enlighten
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It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2019, 21:04

It has been suggested that post-World War II concepts of environmental

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