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# It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones

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Manager
Joined: 19 Oct 2010
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Updated on: 09 Mar 2014, 03:32
14
00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

41% (01:33) correct 59% (01:27) wrong based on 483 sessions

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It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones cause immediate damage to the membrane in the ear and results in hearing impairment. Hence one is advised to avoid using a cell phone to prevent total loss of hearing.

Which of the following if true seriously weakens the above argument?

A. Use of electronic gadgets such as computers also impairs hearing besides affecting eye-sight.

B. Electronic gadgets such as iPods do not damage hearing in users.

C. A majority of those who use hearing aids are found never to have use cell phones in their lives.

D. It is found in the survey that 90% of employees working as telephone operators have been regular users of cell phones for years.

E. Some people use cell phones even while riding two wheelers.

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Originally posted by petrifiedbutstanding on 08 Mar 2014, 06:08.
Last edited by carcass on 09 Mar 2014, 03:32, edited 1 time in total.
The title of the post must be the same of the first sentence
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2014, 10:49
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As (A), (B), and (E) are clearly out of scope here, we need to look more closely at (C) and (D).

(C): Even if a majority of those who use hearing aids have never used cell phones, this proves that there other causes besides the usage of cell phones that can lead to hearing loss. However, this still does not weaken the assertion that cell phones can cause hearing damage. This is therefore not a good enough choice. Reject.
(D): Although this choice becomes the automatic answer through elimination, we should also verify if this option holds logically. The stimulus states that cell phone usage leads to immediate hearing damage, and further concludes that using a cell phone may lead to total loss of hearing. However, if (D) is true, and 90% of telephone operators have been using cell phones for years, this weakens the stimulus' conclusion. If cell phone usage did cause immediate hearing damage, and prolonged usage led to total hearing loss, these telephone operators couldn't possibly have been using cell phones for years (as if their hearing was damaged after some use, they could not continue to use cell phones). This option therefore weakens the conclusion and is the correct choice.

(D) it is.
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##### General Discussion
Manager
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08 Mar 2014, 08:35
I will go with C.
Effect: Total loss of hearing

To weaken: We want some other cause. Other cause is mentioned in C. SO C is 100% right.

D is tempting but majority is more preferred than actual figures. 90% of 10 people will be only 9. SO only 9 people are telephone operators.

Thus I think C is better.

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08 Mar 2014, 09:04
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I think D is weakening the argument.
If majority of telephone operators have been using cell phones FOR YEARS,the argument that radiations CAUSE IMMEDIATE DAMAGE is weakened.
But again we don't know any aspect of the survey which reported these findings.
As for C,majority of those who use hearing aid have never used cell phones doesn't seem to weaken the argument.It is merely employing reverse logic:
cell phone->hearing impairment
hearing impairment->no cell phone use
C is not sufficient to deny that cell phones cause ear damage.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2014, 11:59
Gr8 explanation GyanOne. Now completely convinced with D.
Thanks and +1 Kudos.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2014, 17:22
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GyanOne wrote:
As (A), (B), and (E) are clearly out of scope here, we need to look more closely at (C) and (D).

(C): Even if a majority of those who use hearing aids have never used cell phones, this proves that there other causes besides the usage of cell phones that can lead to hearing loss. However, this still does not weaken the assertion that cell phones can cause hearing damage. This is therefore not a good enough choice. Reject.
(D): Although this choice becomes the automatic answer through elimination, we should also verify if this option holds logically. The stimulus states that cell phone usage leads to immediate hearing damage, and further concludes that using a cell phone may lead to total loss of hearing. However, if (D) is true, and 90% of telephone operators have been using cell phones for years, this weakens the stimulus' conclusion. If cell phone usage did cause immediate hearing damage, and prolonged usage led to total hearing loss, these telephone operators couldn't possibly have been using cell phones for years (as if their hearing was damaged after some use, they could not continue to use cell phones). This option therefore weakens the conclusion and is the correct choice.

(D) it is.

' If cell phone usage did cause immediate hearing damage, and prolonged usage led to total hearing loss ' - your clause regarding total hearing loss is not mentioned anywhere in the premise.

In my opinion it's A.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2014, 20:25
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gauravkaushik8591 wrote:

' If cell phone usage did cause immediate hearing damage, and prolonged usage led to total hearing loss ' - your clause regarding total hearing loss is not mentioned anywhere in the premise.

In my opinion it's A.

I think I understand where you are coming from. The problem is that the conclusion: "avoid using a cell phone to prevent total loss of hearing"
is implying that cell phone use causes total loss of hearing even though it is worded awkwardly. It is not implying that if you don't use a cell phone, you will not suffer from total loss of hearing. Note that had that been true, in addition to (A), option (C) would have been a valid weakener too since it gives you that other factors can cause hearing loss.

The conclusion is "Use of cell phone cause total loss of hearing"

What we need to weaken it is not an alternative reason for hearing loss but instead proof that use of cell phone does not cause loss of hearing.

(D) tells you that 90% telephone operators (people who use their hearing ability at work) used cell phone for years. But since they are working as telephone operators, their hearing must be still intact. Hence, this is proof that cell phone use doesn't cause total hearing loss. So (D) is a weakener.
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03 Jun 2016, 20:55
Hi GyanOne,
If D is correct, are we not assuming that telephone operators job is involved with good hearing.
It is true in real world but according to passage isn't it out of scope. Moreover, they might be using their cell phones with hearing loss.

C says that in majority cases the cause is absent when the effect is present. It can be a weakner since it creates enough doubt on the conclusion.

Please correct if there are any conceptual gaps.

Thanks,
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2016, 21:34
The conclusion we have in the argument is this: "avoid using a cell phone to prevent total loss of hearing"
This implies that cell phone use causes total loss of hearing (even though it is worded awkwardly). It is not implying that if you don't use a cell phone, you will not suffer from total loss of hearing.

The conclusion is not: ONLY cell phone use causes total loss of hearing.
Had that been true, both (A) and (C) would have been valid weakeners.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 10:59
jpvemula wrote:
Hi GyanOne,
If D is correct, are we not assuming that telephone operators job is involved with good hearing.
It is true in real world but according to passage isn't it out of scope. Moreover, they might be using their cell phones with hearing loss.

C says that in majority cases the cause is absent when the effect is present. It can be a weakner since it creates enough doubt on the conclusion.

Please correct if there are any conceptual gaps.

Thanks,

Hi!

The conclusion states that use of cellphone should be avoided because it causes total loss of hearing.

Now to weaken the conclusion if we could have any premise showing that cellphone do not cause loss of hearing, we can prove that the conclusion is not justified.

Let's look at the statement C and D

C. A majority of those who use hearing aids are found never to have use cell phones in their lives. It says people who are using hearing aids have never used cellphones. But does it conclude that cellphone causes hearing loss? If they have never used cellphones, we don't know weather cellphones cause hearing loss.

D. It is found in the survey that 90% of employees working as telephone operators have been regular users of cell phones for years. 'Have been using' implies that they started using in the past and are still using the cellphones. If cellphones caused hearing loss, they would not have been working as telephone operators. Hence, their hearing is intact. It weakens the conclusion.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2018, 04:08
VeritasPrepBrian VeritasKarishma DmitryFarber SaraiGMAT jennpt chetan2u

The first sentence of the argument " it is generally believed ....." . Can we challenge this??? because it is a belief and not a plain fact . By using option D we are actually attacking that belief itself right???
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2018, 07:47
C is very close to argument and seem correct choice because person having hearing impairment have never used cell phones.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2018, 01:42
This is not a valid CR question. It requires us to assume that one cannot work as a telephone operator with impaired hearing. There's absolutely no reason to assume that, especially since we are given no definition of what hearing impairment is. Pretty much all adults have some level of hearing impairment. So what?

The major flaw in the original argument is the leap from a BELIEF about IMPAIRMENT to a warning that we should avoid use to avoid TOTAL HEARING LOSS. Who says this belief is correct? (Yes, AdityaHongunti, we can challenge something that is just a belief, unless that belief is stated with complete authority, as in "All novels are creative.") And if it is correct, who says that IMPAIRMENT will lead to TOTAL HEARING LOSS. Further, even if this will happen, how do we know that we must avoid use? Maybe the value of cell phone use is worth it! All of these are assumptions, but the OA addresses none of them.
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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones  [#permalink]

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Re: It is generally said that radiations emitted by cell phones   [#permalink] 10 Dec 2019, 22:29
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