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# It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh

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It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Oct 2018, 09:04
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

24% (02:12) correct 76% (02:22) wrong based on 255 sessions

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It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.

Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?

(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital.

(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.

(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.

(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.

(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate

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Originally posted by tenaman10 on 17 Jun 2009, 23:21.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Oct 2018, 09:04, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic, edited the question and added the OA.
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Re: It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2009, 13:14
Only A goes on the same line.

rest all related outcome of first to the input of second and thus this forms a chain of events. Only A makes unwarranted assumption.
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Re: CR - Similar Reasoning Tough One  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2009, 16:24
1
It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.

Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?

(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.

re writing the question: 1 cause 1 effect, 2nd effect not possible. this is incorrect, 2nd effect is from diff. characteristic than the effect-1

A) anonymous donor is helps the needful-cause, effect-1 is gave 10K dollars, effect 2-is volunteering at children hospital

E) 2 causes and 1 effect
Ans A.
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Re: CR - Similar Reasoning Tough One  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2009, 12:47
1
1
S_O_S
Some one plz help & take it forward ( i have given my understanding but no ans )

basic cause >> characteristic 1 >> ( effect 1: observed )
basic cause >> characteristic 2 >> ( effect 2 : inferred )

It is illogical to infer a second and different effect (effect 2 : inferred) from a cause which is known only by one particular effect (effect 1: observed).[ cause is known by observed effect 1...author claims that it is illogical to infer effect 2...hence effect 2 cannot happen ]
This is incorrect (means negate above underlined statement.....effect 2 can happen) because the inferred effect (effect 2 : inferred) must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic (characteristic 2) of the cause ( basic cause) than is the observed effect ( effect 1: observed ), which already serves entirely to describe the cause ( means...observed effect 1 already serves entirely to describe the basic cause)

So in short

it is not only effect 1 but effect 2 is also possible from cause, because characteristic 2 exists.

(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital.
observed effect 1 : anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society
inferred effect 2 : individual also volunteers at the children’s hospital ( refer I would guess..hence inferred effect)....but no mention of characteristic..

(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.
observed effect 1 : birth defect because of >> characteristic 1 : The radioactive material leading genetic mutation
inferred effect 2 (refer therefore) : birth defect because of >> characteristic 1 : The radioactive material leading genetic mutation
this is circular reasoning...our reasoning is not circular hence dropped

(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
observed effect 1: immense power because of characteristic 1 : tiny atom
inferred effect 2 ( refer...It must be) : complex structure that produces this power

(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
observed effect 1: The city orchestra received more funds
inferred effect 2 (refer ...Clearly) : this administration is more civic-minded

(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.
observed effect 1 : [heat liquid water > it evaporates] & [heat other 100 liquids like water > they also evaporate]
inferred effect 2 (refer...Therefore): I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate

AM i right ? heavy weights plz jump in to help....
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Re: It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh  [#permalink]

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05 May 2010, 10:17
I think ans is A

Cause: charitable
Effect: donation
Just because a peron donates in X also means he would donate in Y
assumption that it is CHARITABLE nature that prompts someone to donate and no other characteristic of a person.
However,if the person donates in X for one reason that reason might not apply for Y
and hence such an argument is wrong.
Very similar to the arg in stimulus where it assumes that only one characteristic of
an cause wholly makes up the effect.This assumption is wrong
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Re: It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 23:10
1
IMO A.
my take:
The line of reasoning in stem is that X causes Y. Therefore X must also cause Z.
This is almost similar to the reasoning in A.
Hope that helps.
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Re: It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh  [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 06:12
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Cause gives effect.
Hence cause can give another effect.

a) Good guy gives to charity.
Hence good guy must also volunteer.

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Re: It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh  [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2018, 08:58
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Re: It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause wh   [#permalink] 19 Dec 2018, 08:58
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