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Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut

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Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?


A. Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.

B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.

C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.

D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.

E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.


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Originally posted by reply2spg on 20 Feb 2009, 18:56.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Oct 2018, 03:56, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: QOTD: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2017, 09:35
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If you want to find a statement that weakens an argument, you have to start by understanding that argument. Start with the conclusion: "removing the {high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts} would seriously hamper the government's effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years."

Now make sure you understand the structure of the argument--how does the author arrive at that conclusion?

  • The first sentence tells us about the high tariff that is currently in place and that ensures that unprocessed cashew nuts are sold to domestic processing plants.
  • The second sentence tell us that more farmers could profit by growing cashews if the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices.
  • We can infer that selling cashews at world market prices (without the tariff) would be more profitable for Kernland farmers than selling the cashews to domestic processing plants. In other words, the price at which farmers currently sell unprocessed cashews to domestic plants is LOWER than the world market price, but because of the high tariff the farmers cannot take advantage of the higher world market price.
  • If the tariff were removed and the farmers began exporting more of their unprocessed cashews, sales of unprocessed cashews to domestic processing plants would be reduced. If the domestic plants have fewer cashews to process, the plants, which are all located in urban areas, would likely need fewer employees, potentially leading to layoffs.
  • Thus, according to the author, removing the tariff would likely lead to a loss of jobs at domestic processing plants. This job loss would "seriously hamper the government's effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years."

Now, which of the answer choices most seriously weakens this argument?

Quote:
A. Some of the byproducts of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.

Regardless of what cashew processing plants do with some of the byproducts, removing the tariff might still lower the amount of work for domestic plants, leading to a loss of jobs and possibly hampering the government's effort to reduce urban unemployment. This fact does not impact the author's argument, so (A) can be eliminated.

Quote:
B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.

We are told that "if the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by growing cashews." This implies that Kernland farmers would, in the absence of the tariff, sell more cashews to other countries and sell fewer cashews to domestic plants. Statement (B) does not impact this reasoning, so (B) can be eliminated.

Quote:
C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.

Just because MORE people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews does not mean that the number of people engaged in processing cashews is small. If a significant portion of Kernland's population is engaged in processing cashews, there could be a significant number of lost jobs if more cashews are exported. Choice (C) does not necessarily impact the author's reasoning and can be eliminated.

Quote:
D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world-market prices enable cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.

This statement does not weaken the author's argument. In fact, if true, this statement probably strengthens the author's argument. Currently, cashew processors in Kernland can sell processed nuts at competitive prices. If the tariff is lifted, cashew processors would have to raise their prices to maintain current profit levels, and this might lead to a decline in sales if some consumers are unwilling to pay those higher prices. A decline in sales would make it more likely that domestic plant workers might lose their jobs. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities

If an increasing number of small farmers leave their land to go to the cities, there will be fewer farmers to grow and harvest unprocessed cashews in Kernland. Gradually, the domestic plants might have fewer domestic cashews to process and will either have to import cashews at the higher world market price or reduce plant operations. Thus, statement (E) suggests that domestic plant workers might lose their jobs if the tariff is NOT removed. Furthermore, with more and more people (the former small farmers who left their land) moving to the cities looking for work, it is quite possible that urban unemployment will rise. If statement (E) is true, removing the tariff would encourage more farmers to stay in Kernland and grow cashews that need to be processed. Thus, statement (E) is evidence that removing the tariff will NOT seriously hamper the government's effort to reduce urban unemployment. This weakens the author's argument, so (E) is the best answer.
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2009, 00:30
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Argument: removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government's effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years.

how to weaken the above argument?
by Proving:
tariff
=> do not reduce urban unemployment
=> increase the urban unemployment

E) A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.
==> Because of tariff, farmers are moving to urban areas and are increasing the unemployment figures of urban

Got this explanation from another thread
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2009, 01:36
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Definitely E. Here we r concerned abt unemployment in urban areas. E mentions that bcos of lack of emloyment opportunities many youths frm villages r forced 2 move 2 cities 4 employment which adds to the unemployment scenario in C. so if tehse youths will have ample opportunity in village itself, the problem in urban areas will be solved.

reply2spg wrote:
Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to
ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and
unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by
growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing
the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment
over the next five years.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints
and plastics.
B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing
them.
D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew
processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in
Kernland off their land and into the cities.

Not convinced by the OA
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2009, 12:34
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I would go with E.

And the explanation is:
Removing tariff increases urban unemployment

What if there is another scenario which increases urban unemployment. That would weaken the argument.
In E, "lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities" increases urban unemployment. So we found an alternative cause for an effect.
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 01:59
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After seeing every comment, I am very confused as I Picked 'C' as the answer. Aint it work the following way?

Cause------------> Effect

Removing the tariff------------> serious hamper of the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment ~= Increase in the number of Unemployed people in urban area.

Now, in case of E, if the tariff is removed, farmers will have at least one profitable crop, thus will not move(or move little) to urban area. So they will not move to urban area. However, the urban processing folks will still loose jobs as most of the cashew nuts will be imported to outside (Is the logic flawed?). In short, here Cause-----------> effects, so E actually strengthens the argument.

From another point of view, E shows that if there is tariff (the prevailing situation continues), the number of farmers will increase in urban area for the movement and probably will create more unemployment (though not mentioned specifically that the migrated farmers will be jobless, I am taking it as a general assumption), thereby worsening the unemployment situation. In short, Absence of Cause-----------> Creates the effect.

I am totally confused as how to attack the argument (Reading the CR Bible too much I guess)

Now for 'C',

Even if you remove the tariff, the effect will be minimal as more people are engage in farming than producing. We may say that governments effort to reduce unemployment in urban area will not be "seriously hampered".

Please help me find the error in reasoning on choice 'E'. What is the OA?
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2009, 12:35
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reply2spg wrote:
Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to
ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and
unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by
growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing
the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment
over the next five years.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing
them.

E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in
Kernland off their land and into the cities.



Well IMO C and E is negative choices but C is irrevelant to the conclusion. The conclusion states,'' removing
the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment
over the next five years'' . I may ask what's the reason for this urban unemployment. Then this conclusion would be weaken. IMO E
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2012, 09:27
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reply2spg wrote:
Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.
B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.
D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.



Argument: Removing tariff would reduce employment in urban areas where the domestic processing plants are

Support: Domestic processing plants buy the unprocessed cashew nuts at a "lower" price, thanks to the high tariff that is imposed when the unprocessed cashew nuts are exported out of the country and sold to foreigners


Weakening strategies:
1) Opposite Argument
2) Opposite Support
3) Discredit the link between support and argument

Here, my initial hunch is that the "support" is not necessarily linked to the "argument". The keyword is employment. How are domestic processing plants' buying cashew nuts at a discounted price...how is that linked to employment? Specifically, "urban" employment.

If we look at (E), we DO talk specifically about urban when they mention movement of farmers into the cities.
(E) A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.

If (E) is true...then when import tariff is REMOVED then farmers DO PROFIT. If farmers profit, we know they don't MOVE into the cities, they instead stay on the farms. So in this case, since they don't go into the city, we do not have a lot of unemployed farmers in the city. And thus, the employment rate stays healthy.

So from the beginning, we may think of (E) as saying due to lack of profitable crop, farmers are entering cities. Presumably they are unemployed and this reduces employment rate in the city. But THEN, import tariffs are removed, and suddenly we HAVE a profitable crop. Thus will keep farmers on their farm, away from the cities and employment rates in the city are not affected. Thus the government's efforts to INCREASE urban employment is NOT affected - which is opposite the conclusion reached in the passage.
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2013, 00:22
score780 wrote:
Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.
B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.
D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.


Remember for CR questions that involve weakening or strengthening we need to focus on the argument (conclusion)

Conclusion: Since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years

So we're looking for a statement that will weaken the argument that removing the tariff's would hamper the effort to reduce unemployment.

Remember in CR questions all the statements in the passage are considered true unless otherwise stated.

Facts:
- The tariff's are driving the farmers to sell the cashews to domestic processing plants at lower than world market prices.
- If the tariff's were removed the farmers could sell at higher prices to world markets and profit more.

A.) Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics. This doesn't tell us anything about the unemployment issue in the conclusion. It implies that the by-products of the cashews are keeping other plants open (the paints and plastics), so this will strengthen the argument slightly, but even still it's a stretch to infer that.

B.) Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants. This tells us that other countries governments are subsidizing processing plants to keep them open. This is a useless statement that neither strengthens nor weakens the argument.

C.) More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them. This statement tells you about the ratio to farmers to processors. Farmers>Processors. This has no impact on the unemployment of the processors if the tariff's were removed. It only tells you if the tariff's were removed the smaller party would be impacted more, which is still undesirable. If we had 50,000 farmers and 49,500 processors, it's still a huge loss for Kernland and this statement could still be satisfied.

D.) Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices. This statement strengthens the argument of the author. The tariff's MUST stay in place so that the Kernland processors can sell the cashews at a competitive price. This is the opposite of what we're looking for.

E.) A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities. BINGO! Exactly what we're looking for. It hits on both of our facts from the passage and finds another cause for the unemployment problem other than the conclusion that was stated. Fact from passage: The cashew sells are not profitable to the farmers. Effect - Because of this the farmers are coming into the city adding to the unemployment problem. If the tariff's were removed, the farmers could farm cashews and sell them for a higher profit, which would prevent them from moving into the urban areas creating less competition for jobs, which would lower the unemployment.
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Re: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nut  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2013, 14:16
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Quote:
Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government’s effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.
B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.
D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.


Hi 2013gmat. I'm glad to help.

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

The logic of the question is:

- High tariff on the export --> nuts are sold to domestic processing plants which are in urban area --> unemployment rate in urban area reduces
- Remove high tariff on the export --> nuts are sold to world market --> fewer job in processing plants --> unemployment rate in urban area.

The conclusion: Remove high tariff leads to high unemployment in urban.
Assumption: high tariff affects unemployment rate directly.

In order to weaken the conclusion, we have to scenarios:
(1) Attack the conclusion: Remove high tariff --> unemployment rate in urban will not be high. This is a extreme case, which undermine the conclusion completely (100%)
(2) Attack the assumption: There is another reason leading to high unemployment in urban. Thus, the removing of high tariff is not the main cause. On the other hand, the unemployment rate in urban will not be affected by the high tariff –OR-- the removing of high tariff.

ANALYZE EACH ANSWER:

A. Some of the by-products of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.
Wrong. Out of scope.

B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
Wrong. Out of scope. We only talk about Kernland.

C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.
Wrong. Out of scope. We do not have information about the proportion between people farming cashew and people processing cashew. Thus, the ratio does not help to weaken.

D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world market prices enables cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
Wrong. Out of scope. We do not talk about how much cashew processors earn. Just focus on the relationship between “high tariff” and “unemployment in urban”.

E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities.
Correct. Only E makes sense. Because E shows that the main cause leading to unemployment in urban is the lack of profitable crops. When the high tariff still exists –OR-- is removed, if the farmers earn too little from their crops, they will not have motivation to continue farming. They will move to cities, unemployment rate in urban is still high.

Hope it helps.
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Re: QOTD: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 02:53
souvik101990 wrote:

Kernland imposes a high tariff on the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to ensure that the nuts are sold to domestic processing plants. If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices, more farmers could profit by growing cashews. However, since all the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the tariff would seriously hamper the government's effort to reduce urban unemployment over the next five years.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. Some of the byproducts of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.
B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.
D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world-market prices enable cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities


Analyzing the prompt: The government focus its effort on processing plants. It imposed the tariff to save them and taking into consideration the farmers and their profitability to continue or grow their businesses. The government Goal is to reduce the unemployment rate in URBAN cites where processing plants locate.

We will try to WEAKEN the effort by showing a factor that Might increase the employment rate or at least keep it stable over the next 5 years.

A. Some of the byproducts of processing cashews are used for manufacturing paints and plastics.
This factor talks about the usage of the cashews in industry. But it does show how it will affect the employment rate. Should those industries hire more people or not. It does not help. Irrelevant

B. Other countries in which cashews are processed subsidize their processing plants.
This factor does not show any effect how it will weaken the goal of the governments by using the imposed tariff. It talks about another strategy to help industry. Out of scope

C. More people in Kernland are engaged in farming cashews than in processing them.
Does it help to know many people work in processing than in farming. The factor might help to strengthen the government's goal by showing saying 'ya go ahead to impose tariff to save those people in processing'. Wrong reason

D. Buying unprocessed cashews at lower than world-market prices enable cashew processors in Kernland to sell processed nuts at competitive prices.
This factor does show how will effort by weakened by imposing the tariff. This factor is somehow is like subsidizing the processing industry and help them Wrong choice.

E. A lack of profitable crops is driving an increasing number of small farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities
Bingo. Imposing the tariff leads to low profitability for farmers, especially smaller, who might not only abandon the business but also immigrate to urban cities. It won't help the government who would find more people coming to the cities searching for jobs.

Answer: E
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Re: QOTD: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2018, 08:37
I'm still confused with this sentence "If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices". Does it mean that if the tariff were higher (rather than lower), then farmers could sell unprocessed cashews at higher prices?
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Re: QOTD: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2018, 12:42
Sueds wrote:
I'm still confused with this sentence "If the tariff were lifted and unprocessed cashews were sold at world market prices". Does it mean that if the tariff were higher (rather than lower), then farmers could sell unprocessed cashews at higher prices?

Sueds, in this context, "lift" actually means to remove, revoke, or rescind. For example, "During a state of emergency, the police imposed a curfew. The curfew was lifted after one week."

So in this sentence, we are talking about removing the tariffs, not raising the tariffs.
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Re: QOTD: Kernland imposes a high tariff on the &nbs [#permalink] 25 Mar 2018, 12:42
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