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Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2016, 18:21
abrakadabra21 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

Meaning of the sentence :-
Knowledge of the winter behavior of emperor penguins has been gained slowly for the reason that
high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards is making the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

Now "because of" needs noun and not a clause so "make" is out of the question

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make

Between D & E.
Making is modifying only blizzard. D should be the correct one.

D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making


So true. Guess I totally missed the absence of comma before blizzards.

But, do you think "the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards" makes sense with other parts of the sentence?
Like: Because of....., the fact of round-the-clock darkness,..... making
Because of...., with frequent sudden blizzards,...making

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards makeof repeated twice
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, makeof repeated twice
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards makeCorrect
D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, makinglist of items - needs and rather than with
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards makingmaking is incorrect - needs a working verb

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2016, 12:09
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For those struggling to see why the option is correct.

Knowledge... has been gained ....because of ....winds, [because of] temperatures ...., [because of] .... darkness, and [because] .... blizzards make the Antarctic habitats ...

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2016, 11:29
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Option E is correct. The structure of the sentence is as follows:
Knowledge has been gained slowly because of:
1. high winds
2. temperatures
3. darkness
and
4. blizzards

The present participle modifier "making the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter" modifies the 4th item (blizzards).

OA has been added.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2016, 04:33
I am still unsure why E is the correct ans. As per me option C should be the correct ans.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2016, 05:15
arunavamunshi1988 wrote:
I am still unsure why E is the correct ans. As per me option C should be the correct ans.


Hello my friend,

In the last part you have a gerund-participle, mak"ing", changing the meaning of the sentence by adding description to "blizzards"

"blizzards making the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter."

Avoiding the gerund-participle, the correct choice agrees to the list of weather patterns while it keeps its parallelism.

[list of weather patterns] make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter. :-D

"Experts" correct me if I am wrong haha :oops:

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2016, 10:18
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arunavamunshi1988 wrote:
I am still unsure why E is the correct ans. As per me option C should be the correct ans.


Two problems with C:

1. The meaning conveyed is problematic - the second clause (frequent sudden blizzards make...) does not have any relation to the first clause.

2. "And" is missing before "round-the-clock darkness" ("frequent sudden blizzards" is not a part of the list in this case).

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2016, 11:59
Please note that this question is from an unknown source, so the answer choices may not be well worded, phrased, or have much resemblance to the official questions.
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2016, 09:21
tinashine20 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making


Everybody is saying that C is right but y is the OA shown as E??

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2016, 06:25
saurabhsavant wrote:
tinashine20 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making


Everybody is saying that C is right but y is the OA shown as E??


The following posts explain, why C is wrong and E is correct.
knowledge-of-the-winter-behaviour-of-emperor-penguins-has-143033-20.html#p1768488
knowledge-of-the-winter-behaviour-of-emperor-penguins-has-143033-20.html#p1771144

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2016, 08:06
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

Considering 'of' in the options A and B as typo.

A. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
Breaks the parallel structure.
B. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
Breakes the parallel structure.
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
'make' would have made sense if there was no 'of' after 'because' in the prompt. 'because of X, Y, and Z make...' is something hard for me to digest.
D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
Breakes the parallel structure.
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making
Parallel structure maintained. But, there is no comma before 'making' so I think 'making' only modifies 'blizzards' :(

In light of all the errors I could point out, I chose option E. Experts, please suggest.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 02:55
bb wrote:
Please note that this question is from an unknown source, so the answer choices may not be well worded, phrased, or have much resemblance to the official questions.

Hi, don't you think such questions be deleted from forum as these can do more harm than anything else? If you notice the option A should be exactly worded and it is not.
Thanks.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 18:45
rakaisraka wrote:
bb wrote:
Please note that this question is from an unknown source, so the answer choices may not be well worded, phrased, or have much resemblance to the official questions.

Hi, don't you think such questions be deleted from forum as these can do more harm than anything else? If you notice the option A should be exactly worded and it is not.
Thanks.


The question was indeed carelessly written. However some modifications have now been made so as to get rid of the confusion caused.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 19:24
sayantanc2k wrote:
rakaisraka wrote:
bb wrote:
Please note that this question is from an unknown source, so the answer choices may not be well worded, phrased, or have much resemblance to the official questions.

Hi, don't you think such questions be deleted from forum as these can do more harm than anything else? If you notice the option A should be exactly worded and it is not.
Thanks.


The question was indeed carelessly written. However some modifications have now been made so as to get rid of the confusion caused.



Marked E. But I have a query as below:

Knowledge was gained because of A, B, C and D. Can we say all these are noun phrases? And as per definition/preference, because of should modify verbs and not noun?

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 19:32
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Marked E. But I have a query as below:

Knowledge was gained because of A, B, C and D. Can we say all these are noun phrases? And as per definition/preference, because of should modify verbs and not noun?


No, this reasoning is not correct.
"Because of" correctly refers to the verb "has been gained". The noun phrases would follow irrespective of using because of / due to. The difference is as below:

The slow gain of knowledge has been due to X, Y and Z (noun phrases).
The knowledge has been gained slowly because of X, Y and Z (noun phrases).

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 19:42
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Marked E. But I have a query as below:

Knowledge was gained because of A, B, C and D. Can we say all these are noun phrases? And as per definition/preference, because of should modify verbs and not noun?


No, this reasoning is not correct.
"Because of" correctly refers to the verb "has been gained". The noun phrases would follow irrespective of using because of / due to. The difference is as below:

The slow gain of knowledge has been due to X, Y and Z (noun phrases).
The knowledge has been gained slowly because of X, Y and Z (noun phrases).



Thanks! So what follows is not important. It can be used to describe or modify action/verb in the preceding clause? The usage of - Due to and because of - confuses me a lot and reading through material, I am still confused.

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Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2016, 04:09
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

No, this reasoning is not correct.
"Because of" correctly refers to the verb "has been gained". The noun phrases would follow irrespective of using because of / due to. The difference is as below:

The slow gain of knowledge has been due to X, Y and Z (noun phrases).
The knowledge has been gained slowly because of X, Y and Z (noun phrases).



Thanks! So what follows is not important. It can be used to describe or modify action/verb in the preceding clause? The usage of - Due to and because of - confuses me a lot and reading through material, I am still confused.


Because of and due to both have prepositions at the end (of and to), and hence both should be followed by noun / noun phrases (object of preposition).

Because of is an adverbial modifier, and hence modifies a verb.
Due to is an adjectival modifier, and hence modifies a noun. (due is an adjective.)

Remembering one example may help tackle all issues:
The game stopped BECAUSE OF rain. (Because of modifies verb stopped - rain object preposition)
The stoppage of the game was DUE TO rain. (Due to modifies stoppage - rain object of preposition...as above)

Due to is used only with the verb to be (because it modifies the noun). Because of can be used with any verb.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 06:17
abrakadabra21 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

Meaning of the sentence :-
Knowledge of the winter behavior of emperor penguins has been gained slowly for the reason that
high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards is making the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

Now "because of" needs noun and not a clause so "make" is out of the question

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make

Between D & E.
Making is modifying only blizzard. D should be the correct one.

D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making


Yes. I was confused between D and E too. Making seems to modify blizzards in Option E but the problem with Option D and E is that there is no 'of' before high winds. So, it becomes a run-on sentence - because high winds, temperatures..., round-the-clock darkness and .. blizzards making... this is wrong too. I feel that this question has a typo error. None of the options seem to fit well.

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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 06:22
sayantanc2k wrote:
Option E is correct. The structure of the sentence is as follows:
Knowledge has been gained slowly because of:
1. high winds
2. temperatures
3. darkness
and
4. blizzards

The present participle modifier "making the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter" modifies the 4th item (blizzards).

OA has been added.


But isnt comma missing after blizzards. It looks like making is modifying blizzards and not the entire clause..

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Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2017, 01:52
Hi all,

It seems like we have two different questions getting merged under the same thread :

1)Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

I will go with E for this version. "Because of" requires noun,thus the use of "make" is not appropriate.
Option D is out because we have several items that make studying the emperor penguin hard.
Just one question,"making" modifies only the last item of the list or the whole list?
I guess it is for only the last item.Comma is required to modifies the whole list.


2)Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

Presuming the underlined portion cover "of",I will go with C for this version.Option A and B are out since "because of" require noun.The use of "make" is inappropriate.Option D and E are out since "because" requires clause.

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