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Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

(A) encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out

(B) encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out

(C) had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out

(D) encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out

(E) encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 16 Oct 2017, 21:04, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2010, 05:11
vscid wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out



Usage of "with eyes and" is wrong, as "with eyes and" can refer to crocodiles or vacationers: AMBIGUOUS: So d and e are out.

Usage of "are peeking out" a progressive usage: Not correct: A is out

Usage of "had" i justified, if "participated" would have been used.: Keep the sentence in simple past tense if possible.

Finally B.

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Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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Hey All,

While Angel's explanation is entirely correct, it's a bit light on detail, so I thought I'd weigh in.

The big category here is modifiers, and the rules regarding modifiers are very strict. If you want to modify a noun, the modifier and the modifi-ee (my invented word) have to touch.

(A) encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out

(B) encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out

(C) had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out

(D) encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out

(E) encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out

The first split you inevitably saw (aside from the verb tense issue up front, which we can also discuss) was "whose" versus "with". "Whose" is a relative pronoun, and can only be used to modify nouns. That means that "whose" better go RIGHT NEXT to the thing it modifies. Unfortunately, in A, B and C, it modifies "shallows". This doesn't make any sense, for obvious reasons.

"with" is a preposition, and also sets off a modifying phrase. However, this phrase is not modifying crocodiles (As you may have assumed) but "lurking". One way to determine what's being modified is to ask yourself what question is being answered by the modifying phrase. In other words, you can't answer a question about the crocodile with this modifier ("What were the crocodiles doing?" "With eyes and noses peeking out" -- this makes no sense). But you can answer the question "How were the crocodiles lurking?" "With eyes and noses peeking out"). We're modifying a verb, and verb modifiers DO NOT need to touch the verbs they modify.

Between D and E, D is simply more concise (there's no reason to introduce the relative pronoun "that"; it just complicates the meaning).

Also, there's no reason to use any tense but present here. Notice the original verb "participate", which is in the present, then ask yourself if there's any good reason to change tenses. There isn't. Answer is D.

Hope that helps!
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2010, 14:37
vscid wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out


Many daring vacationers | who participate in guided boat tours | on the Tarcoles River | encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, | with eyes and noses peeking out | from the surface of the murky water.

My standard way of solving SC questions, break the sentence into meaningful clauses, each clause speaks about one and only one thing. Now you can eliminate some of the clauses that are just adding information and aren't necessary to understand the complete meaning. That way, you can clearly see the usage of "whose" is a pronoun-referencing error.

My take is D and lock this as the OA.
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2014, 03:21
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

While Angel's explanation is entirely correct, it's a bit light on detail, so I thought I'd weigh in.

The big category here is modifiers, and the rules regarding modifiers are very strict. If you want to modify a noun, the modifier and the modifi-ee (my invented word) have to touch.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out

The first split you inevitably saw (aside from the verb tense issue up front, which we can also discuss) was "whose" versus "with". "Whose" is a relative pronoun, and can only be used to modify nouns. That means that "whose" better go RIGHT NEXT to the thing it modifies. Unfortunately, in A, B and C, it modifies "shallows". This doesn't make any sense, for obvious reasons.

"with" is a preposition, and also sets off a modifying phrase. However, this phrase is not modifying crocodiles (As you may have assumed) but "lurking". One way to determine what's being modified is to ask yourself what question is being answered by the modifying phrase. In other words, you can't answer a question about the crocodile with this modifier ("What were the crocodiles doing?" "With eyes and noses peeking out" -- this makes no sense). But you can answer the question "How were the crocodiles lurking?" "With eyes and noses peeking out"). We're modifying a verb, and verb modifiers DO NOT need to touch the verbs they modify.

Between D and E, D is simply more concise (there's no reason to introduce the relative pronoun "that"; it just complicates the meaning).

Also, there's no reason to use any tense but present here. Notice the original verb "participate", which is in the present, then ask yourself if there's any good reason to change tenses. There isn't. Answer is D.

Hope that helps!


So whose cannot be defined correct in view of the context here..just as 'with' is defined correct here wrt to the context..
Whose irrespective of the context always refers to the preceding noun...whatever it might be..
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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vscid wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out



My take on this question is in a different way , As i think use of whose is correct because It clearly refer's to croc's !!

Ans is D,

Reasoning as follows : < I split sentence into its clauses >

Many Daring vactioners,

Who participate in guided tours on the tarcos river , encounter native crocodile lurking in the swallows,

Whose eyes & noes are peeking out from the surface of murky water

Now, As per S-V agreement Sentence is correct,
Pronoun : whose --> referring to croc correct
Verb Tense : Since this is a information statement hence Simple present tense must be use , Use of present progressive in under line portion ( Whose eyes & noes are peeking) wrong
Modifiers : Correct
Parallelism : OK
Idioms : does not find any specific
Meaning : clear

A : Wrong because of VT error
B: use of encountered verb wrong
C : Use of past perfect wrong
D : Correct Ans ,
E : Use of that unnecessary

Hope it helps !!

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2014, 09:24
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

While Angel's explanation is entirely correct, it's a bit light on detail, so I thought I'd weigh in.

The big category here is modifiers, and the rules regarding modifiers are very strict. If you want to modify a noun, the modifier and the modifi-ee (my invented word) have to touch.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out

The first split you inevitably saw (aside from the verb tense issue up front, which we can also discuss) was "whose" versus "with". "Whose" is a relative pronoun, and can only be used to modify nouns. That means that "whose" better go RIGHT NEXT to the thing it modifies. Unfortunately, in A, B and C, it modifies "shallows". This doesn't make any sense, for obvious reasons.

"with" is a preposition, and also sets off a modifying phrase. However, this phrase is not modifying crocodiles (As you may have assumed) but "lurking". One way to determine what's being modified is to ask yourself what question is being answered by the modifying phrase. In other words, you can't answer a question about the crocodile with this modifier ("What were the crocodiles doing?" "With eyes and noses peeking out" -- this makes no sense). But you can answer the question "How were the crocodiles lurking?" "With eyes and noses peeking out"). We're modifying a verb, and verb modifiers DO NOT need to touch the verbs they modify.

Between D and E, D is simply more concise (there's no reason to introduce the relative pronoun "that"; it just complicates the meaning).

Also, there's no reason to use any tense but present here. Notice the original verb "participate", which is in the present, then ask yourself if there's any good reason to change tenses. There isn't. Answer is D.

Hope that helps!


I am having 1 doubt, although whose is place close to swallows but it does not make sense that swallows have eyes & nose !!

Its must not be the Eliminating factor !!

Plz clarify !!

Regards
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2014, 21:42
Hi E-Gmat/ Shraddha,
Kindly help me in my analysis of this sentence :

Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter
native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the
surface of the murky water.

Meaning- vacationers encounter crocks with eyes and noses lurking out from water.
Structure : Many daring vacationers : Subject
who participate in guided boat tours : D/C with relative pronoun
on the Tarcoles River : prep phrase
encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows : IC / lurking in shallows is modifier modifying crocks/ encounter is the main verb
, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the surface of the murky water : DC with relative pronoun.

My confusion is that the explanation and other posters say that whose incorrectly refers to shallows whereas as per my understanding lurking is shallows is a noun modifier so isn't whose correctly referring to crocks , as it is the logical antecedent for whose.

Kindly help me with your explanation.

Tks/Brgds
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2014, 22:35
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out

IMO D
Reasons: Look Closely, the sentence is in present tence so the " encounter" should be parallel to Present tense " "participate " Hence eliminate 2 & 3
Left with 1, 4 & 5
In 1 whose is ambigous dont know whose is for croc or for vacationers= eliminated
left with 4 &5
5 is word that are not needed
Option =4 right choice

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2014, 22:48
Enbee11 wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out

IMO D
Reasons: Look Closely, the sentence is in present tence so the " encounter" should be parallel to Present tense " "participate " Hence eliminate 2 & 3
Left with 1, 4 & 5
In 1 whose is ambigous dont know whose is for croc or for vacationers= eliminated
left with 4 &5
5 is word that are not needed
Option =4 right choice


Hi Enbee 11,

I agree that ans is D that is fine ,but I am confused about option A wrong for reason of pronoun ambiguity. I don't think that whose can refer to vacationers by jumping over main performing verb encounter.

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2016, 08:58
souvik101990 wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the surface of the murky water.

A. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,whose eyes and noses are peaking out

B.encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out

C. had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out

D. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses peaking out

E. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses that are peaking out


I would chose 'D' for this.

The question stem is stating a fact, and hence 'B' and 'C' are out because of past/ past perfect tense. In option 'E'- with eyes and noses that are peaking out- 'that are' is not required.

'Whose' in option A is not clear for what is is referring to. 'D' sounds correct that crocodiles with eyes and noses peaking out of water are seen by vacationers.
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2016, 22:34
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the surface of the murky water.

A. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,whose eyes and noses are peaking out >> whose may modify crocodile but are peeping acts as verb and changes the meaning by stating that eyes and noses themselves are doing the act of peeping

B.encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out >> changes the tense to past, vacationers participate is present thus encounter is needed

C. had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out >>past perfect wrong; needs encounter

D. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses peaking out >>> correct :eyes and noses peeking where peeking acts as modifier and describes the nouns eyes and noises.

E. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses that are peaking out >>> same error as a

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2016, 03:46
Divyadisha wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the surface of the murky water.

A. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,whose eyes and noses are peaking out

B.encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out

C. had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out

D. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses peaking out

E. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses that are peaking out


I would chose 'D' for this.

The question stem is stating a fact, and hence 'B' and 'C' are out because of past/ past perfect tense. In option 'E'- with eyes and noses that are peaking out- 'that are' is not required.

'Whose' in option A is not clear for what is is referring to. 'D' sounds correct that crocodiles with eyes and noses peaking out of water are seen by vacationers.

Hi Divyadisha!
Do you think that usage of "whose" is correct in A,B and C? (i am not talking about tenses now). In my opinion usage of "whose" is wrong since it is too far from noun that it midifies - "crocodiles". That is why i eliminated these choices.
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2016, 04:17
souvik101990 wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the surface of the murky water.

A. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,whose eyes and noses are peaking out

B.encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out

C. had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out

D. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses peaking out

E. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses that are peaking out



+1 for D
we need a present tense encounter (hence, B and C are out)
A - wrong use of whose (it resembles that shallow have eyes and nose)
Down to D and E
E) wordy
hence, D is correct one.
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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debbiem wrote:
In my opinion courtesy answer is A

Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peaking out from the surface of the murky water.

A. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,whose eyes and noses are peaking out----A promising option as, whose correctly modifies crocodiles

B.encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak out--nop, tense error one time we say VACATIONERS WHO PARTICIPATE and other time it says Encountered---thus inconsistency

C. had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peak outno need of past perfect here thus reject this choice

D. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses peaking outshallows, with eyes n noses peaking out---in this, eyes n noses incorrectly modifies shallows and thus it means that shallows are having noses n eyes peaking out--Reject

E. encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows,with eyes and noses that are peaking out same as d above


Hi debbiem,

Your reasoning is good, but you missed out one tense error in A. The present continuous tense are peaking out implies that the action is happening at this current moment. This tense is definitely wrong. This option would mean that the visitors encounter crocodiles whose eyes and noses are peaking out at this moment...

I understand that you are very concerned with the modifier touch rule, and you are right in doing so. However there are exceptions to modifier touch rule. This example illustrates such an exception: another essential phrase modifier may sometimes drop in between a noun and its modifier. Since you have more serious problem (tense problem) in option A, you would be better off with D, although the modifier touch rule is not followed in this case.

Also note that peaking out in option D is not in present continuous tense, but a present participle. A present participle follows the tense of the main verb of the sentence, in this case simple present.

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2016, 00:11
anuragd wrote:
Enbee11 wrote:
Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out from the surface of the murky water.

1]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
2]encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
3]had encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
4]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out
5]encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses that are peeking out

IMO D
Reasons: Look Closely, the sentence is in present tence so the " encounter" should be parallel to Present tense " "participate " Hence eliminate 2 & 3
Left with 1, 4 & 5
In 1 whose is ambigous dont know whose is for croc or for vacationers= eliminated
left with 4 &5
5 is word that are not needed
Option =4 right choice


Hi Enbee 11,

I agree that ans is D that is fine ,but I am confused about option A wrong for reason of pronoun ambiguity. I don't think that whose can refer to vacationers by jumping over main performing verb encounter.



Simply put... whose can't refer to generic animals. It can only refer to people or animals with names ( eg. Tommy the dog. But it can't refer to dogs)
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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2016, 23:41
sayantanc2k

Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River
encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
from the surface of the murky water.

B > encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
Having read about so many modifier and their exceptions (such as that, which , etc) I have come up with a rule that meaning is given precedence over placement all the time.

In this option "whose" very well modifies crocodiles logically ; lurking in the shallows modifies crocodiles logically and grammatically and its a participle phrase - so we can drop off this part to fetch the crux of the sentence. After cutting the fluff I found the usage of "whose" correct in this option.
Of Course we have fatal verb error in this choice to make it incorrect.

Can we say that the usage of "whose" is correct in here?

D> encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out

For the usage of WITH - I always though comma + with modifies the preceding action/verb and answers the How question.
How did the vacationers encountered crocodiles? with eyes and noses peeking out ? Does not make sense

So how is "WITH" modifying crocodile? and what are the rule around the "WITH"

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 08:14
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divyaverma wrote:
sayantanc2k

Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River
encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
from the surface of the murky water.

B > encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
Having read about so many modifier and their exceptions (such as that, which , etc) I have come up with a rule that meaning is given precedence over placement all the time.

In this option "whose" very well modifies crocodiles logically ; lurking in the shallows modifies crocodiles logically and grammatically and its a participle phrase - so we can drop off this part to fetch the crux of the sentence. After cutting the fluff I found the usage of "whose" correct in this option.
Of Course we have fatal verb error in this choice to make it incorrect.

Can we say that the usage of "whose" is correct in here?

D> encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out

For the usage of WITH - I always though comma + with modifies the preceding action/verb and answers the How question.
How did the vacationers encountered crocodiles? with eyes and noses peeking out ? Does not make sense

So how is "WITH" modifying crocodile? and what are the rule around the "WITH"


Both your questions are related. In general a modifier should touch the noun it modifies. However there are certain exceptions when this rule does not hold. Manhattan SC guide elaborates these rules in a structured way. The above is an example of such an exception in which the touch rule does not hold.

Moreover I would suggest not to differentiate the modifiers as "whose" modifiers, "with" modifiers etc. - it is more convenient to generalize the rules for all modifiers - only some exceptions may be memorized (e.g., present participle modifier may refer to the whole preceding clause).

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 06:06
In D

'with eyes and noses peeking out' looks ambiguous to me as it could be modifying lurking or encounter.
SOMEONE PLEASE CLARIFY

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2017, 04:07
sayantanc2k wrote:
divyaverma wrote:
sayantanc2k

Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Tarcoles River
encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses are peeking out
from the surface of the murky water.

B > encountered native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, whose eyes and noses peek out
Having read about so many modifier and their exceptions (such as that, which , etc) I have come up with a rule that meaning is given precedence over placement all the time.

In this option "whose" very well modifies crocodiles logically ; lurking in the shallows modifies crocodiles logically and grammatically and its a participle phrase - so we can drop off this part to fetch the crux of the sentence. After cutting the fluff I found the usage of "whose" correct in this option.
Of Course we have fatal verb error in this choice to make it incorrect.

Can we say that the usage of "whose" is correct in here?

D> encounter native crocodiles lurking in the shallows, with eyes and noses peeking out

For the usage of WITH - I always though comma + with modifies the preceding action/verb and answers the How question.
How did the vacationers encountered crocodiles? with eyes and noses peeking out ? Does not make sense

So how is "WITH" modifying crocodile? and what are the rule around the "WITH"


Both your questions are related. In general a modifier should touch the noun it modifies. However there are certain exceptions when this rule does not hold. Manhattan SC guide elaborates these rules in a structured way. The above is an example of such an exception in which the touch rule does not hold.

Moreover I would suggest not to differentiate the modifiers as "whose" modifiers, "with" modifiers etc. - it is more convenient to generalize the rules for all modifiers - only some exceptions may be memorized (e.g., present participle modifier may refer to the whole preceding clause).




Between D and E: Am I right to say that both answer are grammatically correct but one is more concise than the other ?

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Re: Many daring vacationers who participate in guided boat tours on the Ta   [#permalink] 25 Feb 2017, 04:07

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