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Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou

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Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2008, 22:19
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Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with ineffective or poorly enforced anti pollutions laws, mostly in the developing world, and that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.


(A) that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution

(B) that, for maintaining competitiveness, rich nations join in this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution

(C) that rich nations join this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution because of wanting to maintain competitiveness

(D) that in rich nations, joining this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution is a result of wanting to maintain competition

(E) that wanting to maintain competition is making rich nations join in this downward slide toward an attitude about pollution that is more lax
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2016, 03:10
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abhijit_sen wrote:
Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with ineffective or poorly enforced anti pollutions laws, mostly in the developing world, and that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.

A) that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.
B) that, for maintaining competitiveness, rich nations join in this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution
C) that rich nations join this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution because of wanting to maintain competitiveness
D) that in rich nations, joining this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution is a result of wanting to maintain competition
E) that wanting to maintain competition is making rich nations join in this downward slide toward an attitude about pollution that is more lax


b
to show a purpose of an action presented be a definite verb (not do-ed, or doing), a verb showing tense, we use "to do", not "for doing". "for doing" can be used to show a purpose of a noun: a pen for paiting. this concept is purely grammatical and is mentioned in grammar books.
B is out.

C.
the pattern "because of +noun" can be an adverb. but writen in C, grammatically, the subject "nations" dose not refer to "wanting". so, "wanting "become unclear and not logic. og book offers a question "golden crap" which contain this pattern "because of doing" .but og dose not offer correct explanation of why this pattern is wrong.

D and E
it is not clear who do "wanting". unclear, we need to show that "nations" "want".
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2008, 22:42
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I think we have to look for parallelism here.
...that free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with.... and ...that, (...), rich nations join in this downward slide toward.....

My only fear is that "for maintaining competitiveness" in (B) is less idimatic than "in order to maintain competitiveness" in (A). However, I will go with (B). What is OA?
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2008, 11:05
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abhijit_sen wrote:
Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with ineffective or poorly enforced anti pollutions laws, mostly in the developing world, and that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.

A) that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.
B) that, for maintaining competitiveness, rich nations join in this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution
C) that rich nations join this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution because of wanting to maintain competitiveness
D) that in rich nations, joining this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution is a result of wanting to maintain competition
E) that wanting to maintain competition is making rich nations join in this downward slide toward an attitude about pollution that is more lax


CDE are outright wrong
A and B are different in terms of tense and idiom.

Tense:- A is in present perfet where as B is in past tense. The sentence should be in present perfect tense.

Idiom:- "in order to maintain competitiveness" sounds better for me than "for maintaining competitiveness".
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2008, 13:20
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I think most of us agree that choice is between A and B. So here is explanation on why B is wrong.

"join in" implies as if rich nations are colluding. Moreover simple present tense "join" implies that this activity has just started. However as original sentence indicates that activity started in the past and still continuing.
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2008, 11:27
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Okay, please allow me to join the class late for I got stuck in a traffic jam, cause by alien UFO's :P

Okay here is my view:
In A, Perfect Tense was used, which indicates that this situation arose recently just to maintain comptetiveness and this still continues in the present.....

In B, Simple Present tense was used, which indicates that this, downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution is a general and consistant trend of Rich Nations.
I guess you can see the difference in the meaning..

when two sentences are grammatically correct and have difference in meanings than always go for A because it is original
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Dec 2016, 05:51
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Any choice with a simple present tense used in this context, makes it look as though it is the routine habit of rich nations to join the downward slide toward more lax attitude. B, C, D and E can be eliminated for this reason. A is the correct choice, because of using the contextually correct present perfect ‘have joined’
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Originally posted by daagh on 01 Feb 2016, 04:28.
Last edited by daagh on 26 Dec 2016, 05:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2016, 21:09
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Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with ineffective or poorly enforced anti pollutions laws, mostly in the developing world, and that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.

A) that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.
B) that, for maintaining competitiveness, rich nations join in this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution
C) that rich nations join this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution because of wanting to maintain competitiveness
D) that in rich nations, joining this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution is a result of wanting to maintain competition
E) that wanting to maintain competition is making rich nations join in this downward slide toward an attitude about pollution that is more lax

Between A & B => present tense is wrong in rich nations join in this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution. Present tense is used to convey facts that are always true. Like blood flows in veins. sun rises in the east.

To show purpose, "to" is uesd not "for"
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 18:08
I found another error in D and E:
DE use maintain "competition" rather than maintain "competitiveness" which is used in ABC.
No country wants to maintain competition, but competitiveness instead.

Am I correct?
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 19:53
Is A proper English? I think it should be maintain competitive
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Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2018, 03:16
Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with ineffective or poorly enforced anti pollutions laws, mostly in the developing world, and that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution.

(A) that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations have joined this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution - Correct

(B) that, for maintaining competitiveness, rich nations join in this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution - 'for maintaining competitiveness' is bad idiomatic usage; 'rich nations join in this downward slide': fatal change in meaning. this wording implies that the rich nations are colluding with each other, metaphorically holding hands, deciding together to become more lax about pollution.

the simple present tense join implies that there is some sort of timeless truth about the statement being made. that's the wrong meaning: the sentence is meant to say that the rich nations have begun to do this as a result of current trends. if you don't understand the difference, consider the following analogous examples:
private universities have admitted more females than males --> meaning: this is an ongoing or cumulative trend, continuing into the present from some designated starting point
private universities admit more females than males --> meaning: this is a fundamental truth about the way private universities operate

(C) that rich nations join this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution because of wanting to maintain competitiveness - same as B; because of verb-ing is unidiomatic

(D) that in rich nations, joining this downward slide toward more lax attitudes about pollution is a result of wanting to maintain competition - illogical meaning - it suggests that we are talking about some phenomenon that happens in rich nations, rather than talking about the actual actions of rich nations.
is a result of VERBing seems awkward

(E) that wanting to maintain competition is making rich nations join in this downward slide toward an attitude about pollution that is more lax - Tense issue

Answer A
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2019, 04:35
I Have a doubt.. All specialists have given different explanations for A vs B... But no body has touched upon the one explanation that i seek here..

The complete statement with option B will be as follows: " Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encourages industry to relocate to....."
---- this itself is a general statement.. free trade generally encourages industry to relocate... its a trend..

and then it says : "and that, in order to maintain competitiveness, rich nations join in this downward slide... "
this line is continuation/extension of that particular general trend... both the sentences are written in same verb tense and they generalize a trend, which can be understood as--- " in view of many environmentalists and some economists, two things happen in general: 1) free trade encourages industry to relocate to countries with ineffective or poorly enforced antipollution laws and
2) to maintain competitiveness, rich nations also join this downward slide...

please explain where is the need to use present perfect, as in option A. When one part of sentence is depicting a general trend why we need to put other part in present perfect?? How the meaning comes that the rich nations are already doing so, and they will continue to do so.. so present perfect is ok ????? Please explain
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Re: Many environmentalists, and some economists, say that free trade encou &nbs [#permalink] 05 Jan 2019, 04:35
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