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Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four

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Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.

B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.

C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.

D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.

E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT

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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2017, 14:59
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I forgot to put this in the post, but 'Kudos' will be given for any right answers posted prior to the OA being revealed!
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2017, 21:08
IMO A
The conclusion is "Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies".A possible weakener could be that normal birth weight babies are born to women with inadequate pre natal care.This is clearly expressed in Option A. Please give me kudos. I need them badly.
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 04:18
I think it is C

option C compromises all statistics, so weakens any conclusion based on such data
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 05:21
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B.

Because record is not available they are directly classified into given category and not because of received adequate care. Alternate reasoning.

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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 06:22
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nightblade354 wrote:
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT


The answer is C

This is weakening question so we we have to show either the conclusion is false or cite some other reason for the conclusion .

Here in this Argument The conclusion is Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies
If we can show that above said conclusion is not correct then we weaken the conclusion
We can also show that hospital records are not reliable for the conclusion thus weakening the conclusion
Therefore C is correct in my opinion it attacks the veracity of the hospital records.
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 06:27
IMO E

Since this options talks about the conclusion directly : If a women has received adequate parental is less likely to give birth to a prematurely than women who do not receive, then this breaks the conclusion that adequate parental care reduces the risk of low weight birth babies.

hence, this option tells that it is not the adequate parental care that reduces the risk instead its the scenario under which babies are not born prematurely.

will be waiting for OE and OA

lets see
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 12:23
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nightblade354 wrote:
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT


I'll go with B.
Since most of the premature babies have low birth weight, routinely tagging them as babies whose mothers received inadequate prenatal care will inflate the proportion of low-birth-weight babies to mothers who received inadequate prenatal care and give us a wrong impression of the effect of inadequate prenatal care on low-birth-weight deliveries.
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 12:55
A will be the answer. As only A has the link with prenatal care vs birth weight with reverse logic of cause-effect relationships

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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2017, 00:35
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Question Type : WEAKENER

Conclusion :- Adequate parental care => reduce risk of low wight birth babies.

What if data is skewed in favour of above conclusion. So let's say whenever there is any low weight birth babies, we will say OH! THEY HAVE NOT PROVIDED PROPER CARE IN PREGNANCY.


This is what B is doing. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available. => whenever there is any mother give premature birth, if we don't know what kind of care provided, we will put into the record of inadequate prenatal care.

Due to this reverse engineering, Adequate parental care => reduce risk of low wight birth babies. will be shown as correct but it is not correct relationship.

so B IS RIGHT ANSWER.
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2017, 09:19
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The OE will be posted a few hours after the OA if there is a need.

I did a delayed OA to generate conversation and debate about the question. I think it creates a more comprehensive analysis of the question and creates clarity.

Some who responded are correct, others are not. Those who are correct will receive Kudos as promised. I hope you guys enjoyed the question, and found it challenging and educational!

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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2017, 10:35
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nightblade354 wrote:
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT


Lets focus on the conclusion,,
it relates the adequate prenatal care to decreasing risk of low birth weight babies..
A: the argument doesnt say only adequate pre natal care reduces low birth weight.. WRONG
B: address our conclusion, if the record is not availabe and classifying improperly will inflate the records.. RIGHT
C: doesnt address the conclusion
D: the conclusion says SIGNIFICANTLY... if the conclusion used the word ONLY,, this is right,,, WRONG
E: Irrelavant

ANS B
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2017, 12:35
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
It is not 100% that adequate parental care will lead to normal birth weight. There will always be exceptions.

B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
Correct. It raises question on the statistics. If the records are not proper then the conclusion doesn't hold.

C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
It is not 100% that adequate parental care will lead to normal birth weight. There will always be exceptions.

D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
It is not 100% that adequate parental care will lead to normal birth weight. There will always be exceptions.

E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.
There is no new information. This is already present in the passage
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2017, 23:43
What is the final answer? I can't see anywhere...


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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 00:42
I could narrow it down to A vs B but I'm unable to understand why A is incorrect !! Whats the issue with A here ?
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 07:36
anuj11 wrote:
I could narrow it down to A vs B but I'm unable to understand why A is incorrect !! Whats the issue with A here ?


Hi Anuj,

This is a Magoosh explanation from Beat The GMAT:

Let's say (A) does make a sufficient dent to the question - it still doesn't answer the question:

"Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument."

(B) on the other hand completely weakens (vs. dents) the conclusion. Mothers who give birth to premature babies, but who do not have record have that care, are automatically grouped in the "inadequate care" category, thus conflating low birth weight of premature babies with all babies receiving inadequate care.

Returning to (A), it simply states that many normal birth weight babies received inadequate care. That doesn't mean that the inadequate care group doesn't have a lower risk than the adequate care group. The latter group could have had a greater percentage of babies born at a normal birth weight.

So (B) is the clear cut answer.


These are from above from people on this forum:

Gmatexam439's:
A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
It is not 100% that adequate parental care will lead to normal birth weight. There will always be exceptions.

B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
Correct. It raises question on the statistics. If the records are not proper then the conclusion doesn't hold.

Moshu's:
A: the argument doesnt say only adequate pre natal care reduces low birth weight.. WRONG
B: address our conclusion, if the record is not available and classifying improperly will inflate the records.. RIGHT

Does this help you out?
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 18:48
B, as reasons stated above
C is a shell game option

nightblade354 wrote:
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2018, 16:01
Sometimes, in practice gmat questions which are based on the actual exams have some unnecessary sentences; such sentences are combined with an option choice to create a trap like the one in C.
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:21
nightblade354 wrote:
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT


Very tough question indeed

No doubts that answer B contributes to the task, BUT
A can contribute as well, so is it not correct because "many" may or may not mean "significant".
C as well, is it because there is no link between low weight and premature birth in the conclusion?
what about D? Is it not correct because "some" opens space to not being "significant" or is it because no clue in conclusion about babies not born prematurely?
is E incorrect because it talks about premature birth?

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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 06:28
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nightblade354 wrote:
Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

Source: LSAT


Records show that premature babies were more likely to have low birth weight than normal babies.
Records also show that women who got adequate prenatal care were less likely to have low birth weight babies (than women who did not get enough care)

Conclusion: Adequate prenatal care significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies.

Let's use some variables to see the connections clearly:

Records show A (premature) leads to X (low weight).
Records also show B (inadequate care) leads to X and 'not B' leads to 'not X'.
We conclude that 'not B' will lead to 'not X'.

We need to weaken the argument.
The records show that women who get adequate care were less likely to have low weight babies. From this we are concluding that adequate care decreases the risk of low weight babies. How do we weaken our conclusion? By somehow establishing that records do not reflect reality.

A. The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.

Irrelevant. This just says that with inadequate care too, normal babies CAN BE born. This doesn't change that with inadequate care, it is MORE LIKLEY to have low weight babies.

B. Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.

This says that A is often classified as B. That 'premature birth' is often classified as 'inadequate care'. This muddies the link between B and X. The link may be between A and X. Since A is often classified as B in reports, that could explain the relation between B and X. Hence report classification may not represent an actual link between care and low birth weight. This does weaken our conclusion.

C. The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.

This says that X is classified as A (so instead of A leading to X, X may be classified as A). In any case, our conclusion deals with relation of B with X. This is irrelevant.

D. Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.

This says that even with 'not A' and 'not B', X could happen. It doesn't impact us. We are talking about probabilities. With A, there is higher risk of X. With B there is higher risk of X. X could happen with not A and not B too. It doesn't worry us.

E. Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.

It says 'not B' leads to 'not A'. This helps our argument.
Since A leads to X, not A is likely to lead to not X. Hence, indirectly too, 'not B' does seem to lead to 'not X'.

Answer (B)
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Re: Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four   [#permalink] 10 Aug 2019, 06:28

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