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# Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to

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Manager
Joined: 26 Dec 2015
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2018, 12:33
once you take a step back from all the technical info in this passage (or maybe its just me that got bogged down in it initially), i think there's a simple way to think about this argument.

basically, blood poisoning happens when bacteria go into bloodstream. makes sense, right? now, researchers predict that a drug will be toxic to certain types of bacteria...what does this mean? this means that the drug will destroy some bacteria that would otherwise enter the bloodstream and cause blood poisoning.

in other words, the researchers are coming up with a reason as to HOW this drug can curb blood poisoning. since we are asked to WEAKEN the question, we need to come up with ANOTHER WAY the drug can curb blood poisoning.
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2018, 09:27
Dear All

I realised my error and why B is the right answer but I still do not understand or have found any strong rationale why B is better than C.

(B) Naltrexone inhibits morphine from triggering the migration of intestinal bacteria into the bloodstream. - Yes, make sense that N inhibits the migration of bacteria and may not actually be directly harmful to bacteria.

(C) Mice that have been given naltrexone but not morphine have no greater risk of developing blood poisoning than do mice that have not been given either substance. - While every explanation given in the thread mentions that this statement evaluates the magnitude, no information affect on bacteria or does not answer the question, but don't we agree that if mice with N and not morphine have no greater risk to blood poisoning than mice who has not been administered any of N or M, it implies that N is ineffective to bacteria that are the cause of blood poising ?

Please can you help me with this ?

Thank You
Abhinav
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2018, 21:56
Morphine leads to blood poisoning in Mice because it makes bacteria migrate from intestine into the bloodstream while Morphine with naltrexone leads to blood poisoning much less frequently.
Conclusion: Naltrexone kills some types of bacteria.
To weaken the researcher’s prediction we need to hit the conclusion. We need to prove that Naltrexone doesn’t kill bacteria but it in some other way reduces the chances of food poisoning.
Choice B is one of those statements that could weaken the conclusion that Naltrexone kills bacteria. Hence, B is the answer.
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2018, 03:49
Morphine leads to blood poisoning in Mice because it makes bacteria migrate from intestine into the bloodstream while Morphine with naltrexone leads to blood poisoning much less frequently.
Conclusion: Naltrexone kills some types of bacteria.
To weaken the researcher’s prediction we need to hit the conclusion. We need to prove that Naltrexone doesn’t kill bacteria but it in some other way reduces the chances of food poisoning.
Choice B is one of those statements that could weaken the conclusion that Naltrexone kills bacteria. Hence, B is the answer.
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Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2019, 09:59
But doesn't B contradict with the premise?

The premise suggests that after giving Naltrexone along with morphine, there were much fewer incidences of blood poisoning but still some.

If Naltrexone inhibits bacteria from migrating to the blood stream, then blood poisoning should have been completely eliminated.

Hence, I followed the logic that there must be other conditions, which cause blood poisoning, that Naltrexone eliminates, thus lowering the number of incidences of blood poisoning but not fully eliminating because morphine still causes blood poisoning in other cases where bacteria is induced to enter the blood stream.
In this case then, Naltrexone is not lowering the rates of blood poisoning through killing bacteria but dealing with other other conditions. --> weaken the argument.

Can someone help countering my logic?

282552 wrote:
Can anybody explain why C is not a better answer than B.

Morphine leads to blood poisoning in Mice because it makes bacteria migrate from intestine into the bloodstream.
Morphine with naltrexone leads to blood poisoning much less frequently.

Conclusion:
Naltrexone is will kill some types of bacteria.

We need to weaken it. There are tons of things which will weaken, There can be a dozen different explanations for why morphine with naltrexone doesn't cause blood poisoning. Perhaps, naltrexone reacts with morphine and neutralises the compound in it which causes the bacteria to migrate.
Naltrexone doesn't kill the bacteria but makes it ineffective such that they don to cause poisoning.
or Naltrexone affects the intestine in such a way that bacteria cannot migrate out of it.
or many other different explanations.

B. Naltrexone inhibits morphine from triggering the migration of intestinal bacteria
into the bloodstream.

Makes perfect sense.

C. Mice that have been given naltrexone but not morphine have no greater risk of
developing blood poisoning than do mice that have not been given either
substance.

So this says that naltrexone does not cause blood poisoning i.e. it doesn't make bacteria migrate form intestine to bloodstream. It does not weaken that it kills some bacteria.
Manager
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2019, 00:58
erictse1103 wrote:
But doesn't B contradict with the premise?

The premise suggests that after giving Naltrexone along with morphine, there were much fewer incidences of blood poisoning but still some.

If Naltrexone inhibits bacteria from migrating to the blood stream, then blood poisoning should have been completely eliminated.

Hence, I followed the logic that there must be other conditions, which cause blood poisoning, that Naltrexone eliminates, thus lowering the number of incidences of blood poisoning but not fully eliminating because morphine still causes blood poisoning in other cases where bacteria is induced to enter the blood stream.
In this case then, Naltrexone is not lowering the rates of blood poisoning through killing bacteria but dealing with other other conditions. --> weaken the argument.

Can someone help countering my logic?

Why E is wrong :
There can be n number of conditions/reasons that cause blood poisoning which is out of the scope of the argument.
We are only concerned about the blood poisoning that is caused when morphine is given to mice. And more particularly the blood poisoning caused by the bacteria migration due to morphine!

However, there is very slight change you should make.
You said - "Hence, I followed the logic that there must be other conditions, which cause blood poisoning, that Naltrexone eliminates."
The entire argument is based on the condition of morphine that causes bacteria to migrate. It is this condition that you must consider to weaken. Not other conditions.

Before arriving at the logic, we have to accept what is given in the premises. We have to accept that bacteria migrates to blood stream when morphine is given.
But, we can question the logic on how the scientists came to conclusion that Naltrexone is toxic to bacteria!
It is this reasoning that we can weaken!

Now keeping above in mind, try taking a fresh look at the question!

Hope this helps!
Senior Manager
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2019, 06:02
I rejected B because if Naltrexone inhibits morphine from triggering the migration of intestinal bacteria into the bloodstream. How does it explain there is still blood poising there should have been no blood poising ?
Wouldn't it be extreme to consider that there are other ways to have blood poising because the passage doesn't say anything about that
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2019, 19:17
1
teaserbae wrote:
I rejected B because if Naltrexone inhibits morphine from triggering the migration of intestinal bacteria into the bloodstream. How does it explain there is still blood poising there should have been no blood poising ?
Wouldn't it be extreme to consider that there are other ways to have blood poising because the passage doesn't say anything about that
This is what we need to weaken:

... naltrexone will turn out to be toxic to certain types of bacteria.

The researchers think that after naltrexone is administered, it kills the bacteria, and that is why there is no blood poisoning.

Option B tells us that what naltrexone actually does is just stop the effect that morphine has (triggering the migration of intestinal bacteria into the bloodstream). So the reason that there is no blood poisoning is not that the bacteria are dead, but that the bacteria are not migrating to the bloodstream.

This weakens the researchers’ prediction.
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Re: Mice that have been given morphine are very likely to   [#permalink] 06 Apr 2019, 19:17

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