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Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas

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Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Apr 2019, 23:21
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Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America. But recent discoveries of human shelters in South America dating from 32,000 years ago have led researchers to speculate that people arrived in South America first, after voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread northward.

Which of the following, if it were discovered, would be pertinent evidence against the speculation above?


(A) A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings 19,000 years ago.

(B) Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.

(C) The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldest known North American site.

(D) The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years ago.

(E) The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwide sea levels


Project CR Butler:Day 37:Critical Reasoning (CR2)


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Originally posted by goalsnr on 18 Jul 2008, 10:43.
Last edited by Bunuel on 07 Apr 2019, 23:21, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2008, 12:30
goalsnr wrote:
Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000
years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America. But recent discoveries of human
shelters in South America dating from 32,000 years ago have led researchers to speculate that
people arrived in South America first, after voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread
northward.
Which of the following, if it were discovered, would be pertinent evidence against the
speculation above?

A. A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings19,000 years ago.

B. Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.

C. The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldestknown North American site.

D. The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupieduntil 6,000 years ago.

E. The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwidesea levels


It is surely B since some of the American sites predates any sites found in South America. The argument above claim that people first arrived SA and then spread to all America continent, yet if North American sites are found this indicates that NA's come before SA's
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Re: Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2017, 22:49
Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America. But recent discoveries of human shelters in South America dating from 32,000 years ago have led researchers to speculate that people arrived in South America first, after voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread northward.

Speculation is that people first entered south america and then moved to north America. We have to find any evidence which is against the above conclusion.

A. A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings 19,000 years ago. .Humane were there 19000 years ago no effect on conclusion

B. Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.means people might have come to north america first...

C. The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldestknown North American site. more chance people moved to south america first

D. The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years ago. no info about north amrica

E. The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwidesea level . out of scope
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Re: Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 23:33
goalsnr wrote:

Project CR Butler:Day 37:Critical Reasoning (CR2)


For all CR butler Questions Click Here

Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America. But recent discoveries of human shelters in South America dating from 32,000 years ago have led researchers to speculate that people arrived in South America first, after voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread northward.

Which of the following, if it were discovered, would be pertinent evidence against the speculation above?

(A) A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings 19,000 years ago.

(B) Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.

(C) The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldest known North American site.

(D) The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years ago.

(E) The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwide sea levels


The actual premise says, "Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America." This is followed by the word "but"...THIS IS A CLASSIC SETUP ON THE GMAT. The author of the stimulus is not saying that the migration happened less than 20 thousand years ago. He or she is saying that someone (in this case archaeologists) believe it. With the word "but" we have a negation and we see that the author of the stimulus does not take the belief as a fact and is indeed contradicting it immediately.
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Re: Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2018, 06:52
goalsnr wrote:

Project CR Butler:Day 37:Critical Reasoning (CR2)


For all CR butler Questions Click Here

Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America. But recent discoveries of human shelters in South America dating from 32,000 years ago have led researchers to speculate that people arrived in South America first, after voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread northward.

Which of the following, if it were discovered, would be pertinent evidence against the speculation above?

(A) A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings 19,000 years ago.

(B) Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.

(C) The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldest known North American site.

(D) The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years ago.

(E) The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwide sea levels


Old Belief: People first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge into North America.
Discovery: Human shelters in South America dating from 32,000 years ago
Speculation: People arrived in South America first, after voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread northward.

We need evidence against speculation.

(A) A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings 19,000 years ago.
In either case (first reaching NA by land or SA by sea), one would expect a shelter in Pennsylvania. So it doesn't go against the speculation.

(B) Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.
North American sites are older than any SA sites. So if sites have been found in SA dating 32,000 yrs ago, there are sites in NA predating those. Hence, this is evidence against first arrival in SA (our speculation). This is the answer.

(C) The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldest known North American site.
Warmer/colder climate has no understandable relevance to us and hence this is irrelevant.

(D) The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years ago.
Continuous occupation of the site makes no difference. Some people from the site could have traveled to NA so it is in agreement with our speculation.

(E) The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwide sea levels
What happened 11,500 and 20,000 years ago is irrelevant. We have found a site in SA of 32,000 yrs ago. If people still did not first arrive in SA, we need to know what happened more than 32000 yrs ago, say what happened 35,000 years ago. This is irrelevant.

Answer (B)
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Re: Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas   [#permalink] 20 Dec 2018, 06:52
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