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# Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish

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Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2019, 07:38
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Question 1
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72% (02:40) correct 28% (02:35) wrong

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Question 2
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34% (01:33) correct 66% (01:43) wrong

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Question 3
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 453, Date: 15-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish a person’s ability to recognize other people’s feelings. A recent study in Norway suggests, however, that these effects can be bolstered by a nasal spray puff of the brain hormone oxytocin, which is known to increase feelings of calm and social bonding. Although oxytocin is already prescribed for certain disorders that affect social function, such as autism, these treatments are often tried in isolated cases, leaving the overall effects of the drug without evaluation.

The Norwegian experiment focused on 40 students, each of whom was given either a control dose of salt water or the drug oxytocin. After the nasal dose, the studentswere shown faces of happy, angry, or neutral expressions, some of which were subtler than others. The researchers found that after a nasal spray dose of oxytocin, the students’ awareness of the expressions was intensified. Further, the experiment showed that the oxytocin had the greatest effect on those who were least able to evaluate emotions properly when given the control.

Although the results of this study seem promising, Leknes, the lead scientist in the investigation, cautions that the hormone would not be a “cure-all” for mental illness or drug addiction. Rather, he suggests, the hormone might help some individuals better interpret the social cues from the world around them.

Spoiler: :: OA
A

1. The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements about the brain hormone oxytocin?

(A) Its overall effects require further evaluation.
(B) In the future, it will be used to cure mental illness and drug addiction.
(C) It is not useful for people who are already able to interpret social cues.
(D) Its effects on the brain are unknown.
(E) It is more effective when dosed via nasal spray than orally.

Spoiler: :: OA
D

2. The passage lends the most support to which of the following conclusions about the nasal spray study of oxytocin?

(A) The results of the study are inconclusive because a sample set of 40 students is not substantial.
(B) The nasal spray of oxytocin increased feelings of calm and social bonding for the students.
(C) Many students were unable to recognize the expressions shown to them when given only the control dose of salt water.
(D) The students who might need oxytocin most are the ones who appear most responsive to the hormone.
(E) The subtler the expression, the more difficult it was for the students to identify.

Spoiler: :: OA
A

3. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage regarding the Norwegian study on oxytocin?

(A) The study showed that oxytocin made students more able to distinguish faces from one another.
(B) Leknes was the lead scientist in the investigation.
(C) A control dose of salt water was used to gauge normal student ability to recognize facial expressions.
(D) Students who participated in the study were shown happy, angry, or neutral expressions.
(E) Oxytocin had the greatest effect on students who were least able to evaluate emotions properly when given the control dose.

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Re: Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 07:06
1
1. A – “leaving the overall effects of the drug without evaluation”
2. D – “oxytocin had the greatest effect on those who were least able to evaluate emotions properly when given the control”
3. A - the students were more able to distinguish expressions, not faces.
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Re: Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2020, 23:16
For question 3, I was unable to eliminate answer choice 'C'. I guess option C is implied but as per the question it asks us "not mentioned in the passage".

3. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage regarding the Norwegian study on oxytocin?

(A) The study showed that oxytocin made students more able to distinguish faces from one another.
(C) A control dose of salt water was used to gauge normal student ability to recognize facial expressions.
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Re: Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2020, 08:36
For question 3, I was unable to eliminate answer choice 'C'. I guess option C is implied but as per the question it asks us "not mentioned in the passage".

3. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage regarding the Norwegian study on oxytocin?

(A) The study showed that oxytocin made students more able to distinguish faces from one another.
(C) A control dose of salt water was used to gauge normal student ability to recognize facial expressions.

Official Explanation

3. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage regarding the Norwegian study on oxytocin?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The experiment was related to students’ ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions, not their ability to tell faces apart. Therefore, (A) is the correct answer.

Choice (B) is mentioned in the first sentence of the last paragraph of the passage.

Choice (C) is addressed throughout the second paragraph, first when it is stated that “a control dose of salt water” was given, and then when awareness after exposure to oxytocin is compared to awareness after the controlled salt water dose.

Choice (D) is explicitly stated in the second sentence of the second paragraph.

Finally, choice (E) is explicitly addressed in the last sentence of the second paragraph.

Hope it helps
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Re: Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2020, 22:46
Explanation for Q. No. 2 please.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2020, 09:48
CaptainX wrote:
Explanation for Q. No. 2 please.

Posted from my mobile device

Official Explanation

2. The passage lends the most support to which of the following conclusions about the nasal spray study of oxytocin?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The second paragraph states that “the experiment showed that the oxytocin had the greatest affect on those who were least able to evaluate emotions properly when given the control.” Thus, it can be inferred that those with the least ability to naturally infer emotions, in other words, the ones who might need it most, reaped the greatest benefits of the hormone. This matches choice (D).

Additionally, (A) is incorrect as the passage does not discuss inconclusiveness based on sample size.

Choice (B) is incorrect as it incorrectly pairs the known effects of the hormone in the brain with the results of the student study.

Choice (C) is incorrect as the passage does not address the ability of the students to recognize expressions, just the relative change between the controlled salt water dose and the oxytocin.

Finally, choice (E) is incorrect for a similar reason: the passage does not state that the subtler the expression the more difficult it was for students to identify, just that some expressions that were used were subtler than others.

Hope it helps
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Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2020, 06:46
I have one question regarding the following last sentence of the 2nd paragraph,
"Further, the experiment showed that the oxytocin had the greatest effect on those who were least able to evaluate emotions properly when given the control."

What words are omitted in "when given the control" ? When (those who ... were) given the control (dose of oxytocin) ?

Thank you !
Most mental health disorders and cases of drug abuse tend to diminish   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2020, 06:46