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Most people who betray their country through some form of

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Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2012, 20:32
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Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

A. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage.
B. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational.
C. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.
D. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge.
E. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important.
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Re: v06 31 most peoplw who betray  [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2012, 20:33
guys, can some one explain how we can use the assumption negation technique to get hte right ans in assumption questions? I marked A in this and got it wrong!
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Re: v06 31 most peoplw who betray  [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2012, 21:04
vibhav wrote:
Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

A. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage.
B. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational.
C. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.
D. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge.
E. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important.



If you map out the argument, you can see it fits the "A vs Not A" Framework from gmatpill.

Irrational Desires -> espionage
Rational ->no such self-destructive behavior.

One of the assumptions here is a reference/link between "espionage" and "self-destructive behavior". In particular, espionage is described as a self-destructive behavior.

However, the question is not just asking for ANY assumption. It's asking an assumption on which the argument depends. In other words, which assumption if NOT TRUE, would make the argument fall apart.

Based on the "A vs Not A" framework, you can see that the argument "depends"/"relies" on people being irrational when committing espionage. Why? Because the opposite (being rational) leads to the opposite conclusion. "No such self-destructive behavior" would result.

If we can establish (thru the assumption negation technique) that the opposite state of the assumption leads to the opposite state of the argument, then that original assumption is an assumption on which the argument depends. This is what (C) does.
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Re: v06 31 most peoplw who betray  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2012, 21:08
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Let I try to help you this question. I will use the NEGATE technique for each question.Okay

vibhav wrote:
Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

A. Self-destruction is NOT the most frequent result of espionage. => the argument does not mention anything to "self-destruction is NOT the most frequent result of espionage", so A is wrong
B. The desire to feel powerful is NOT always irrational. => this also does not mean that the desire is always rational. However, the argument is safe => so, wrong
C. Those involved in espionage HAVE rational reasons for their behavior. => This choice make the argument broken.
D. Espionage is NOT rarely a successful way to gain revenge.=> whether the espionage is/is not rarely a successful way to gain revenge does not affect anything to the argument.
E. Risk-taking is NOT a less (or EQUAL and MORE) frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important. => does not relate anything to the validity of the argument.

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Re: v06 31 most peoplw who betray  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2012, 01:53
A. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage. - Already mentioned in the arguement - Incorrect
B. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. - Desire to feel powerful can be fulfilled by means other than espionage. - Incorrect
C. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior. - Self destructive behavior is never rational and hence there is no rational reason for their involvement in espionage - Correct
D. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge. - Espionage is a way to gain revenge. Success or failure of it is irrelevant - Incorrect
E. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important. - The factors that motivate espionage cannot be quantified and is irrelevant in the current context - Incorrect
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Re: v06 31 most peoplw who betray  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2012, 22:32
I have got it through POE.

Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

A. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage. - the use of "the most"
B. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. - the use of "always"
C. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.
D. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge. - General Statement and use of "rarely a successful way"
E. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important. - this option uses the comparison between "seek revenge" and "take risk" but the question stem says "seek revenge or take risk"
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Re: v06 31 most peoplw who betray  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2012, 04:26
ranjeet75 wrote:
I have got it through POE.

Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

A. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage. - the use of "the most"
B. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. - the use of "always"
C. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.
D. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge. - General Statement and use of "rarely a successful way"
E. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important. - this option uses the comparison between "seek revenge" and "take risk" but the question stem says "seek revenge or take risk"


in the assumption questions , are the choices with extreme words always WRONG ??
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2012, 13:07
B vs C?
The reasons mentioned above to eliminate other options including B are solely based on extreme words. Whenever see an extreme word, just neglect that option. But GMAT knows this and in questions 650+ level, this method of neglecting the answer choices just on the basis of usage of extreme words will doom anyone.
The correct way when you are confused is negate the options.
On negating, B will become-the desire to feel powerful is NOT ALWAYS irrational.
On negating C, those involved in espionage do have rational reasons for their behaviour.
The negation of option C clearly destroys the conclusion. Hence the answer is C.
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Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 01 Sep 2012, 13:38
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Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

1. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage.
2. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational.
3. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.
4. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge.
5. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important.

Will provide OA after some discussion

Originally posted by mehulsayani on 28 Aug 2012, 03:44.
Last edited by mehulsayani on 01 Sep 2012, 13:38, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of es  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2012, 04:34
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mehulsayani wrote:
Most people who betray their country through some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires to feel powerful or important, to seek revenge, or even to take risks. If these people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

1. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage.
2. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational.
3. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.
4. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge.
5. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important.

Will provide OA after some discussion


IMO choice C is the answer. The conclusion of the passage states that People with irrational feeling betray their country. People with rational feeling dont.

1. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage. - Irrelevant as there is no mention of word Self Destruction in the passage
2. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. - It is mentioned in the passage directly so that can be neglected
3. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior. - This supports the conclusion of the passage.
4. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge. - Out of scope
5. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important - Out of scope
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 21:10
i picked up c her because when we negate c
though people have rational reasons they are not thinking of the things rationally
which can be concluded from the combination of the negated assumption and the conclusion
as it is hece weakened

c is right

m not sure if its right bacause i know my explanation is not satisfactory
intuitive answer from my side.
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New post 31 Aug 2012, 03:14
1. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage - Most frequent cannot be an assumption
2. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. - Not always true
3. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior - Correct as "they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior"
4. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge. - Not True
5. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important. - This is given in the premise, so Incorrect.
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2012, 13:39
Hey guys, why is A not right? The last statement says something about self destruction.
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2013, 08:30
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2015, 17:57
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I really dont understand why the option is C... Because the premisis says "some form of espionage are driven by irrational desires" and "people were thinking rationally, they would not be involved in such self-destructive behavior."

C states that, Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior.- Check the 1st bolded part, some form of espionage, not all. How could we generally say that all forms of espionage do not have rational reasons?

While in A, it states, Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage.- check the rest of the bolded parts. It states self destruction is a cause of irrational thinking which is again a result of "some form of espionage" not all just a part.. And MOST in this option states again a part.

Please explain..
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2015, 08:22
Got it wrong :/ it is difficult to read and get most of the information
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 09:47
C : Correct answer. Negate it the conclusion will be weakened.

A and B too extreme answers.D and E are not relevant.
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2017, 22:15
I have a doubt on C, although its the best of the lot:

the prompt says "MOST people...thru espionage...by irrational" but in C it says "those involved in esp do not have rational reasons" which to me reads that ALL involved in espionage don't have rationale reasons, which contradicts the most. can someone please help clarify?
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Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2018, 21:19
1. Self-destruction is the most frequent result of espionage. - Out of focus as negating this option does not affect the conclusion.
2. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. - Stated in the passage so it cannot be an assumption
3. Those involved in espionage do not have rational reasons for their behavior. - Yes, the passage assumes this as if we negate this, we get "Those involved in espionage do have rational reasons for their behavior.". This breaks the conclusion.
4. Espionage is rarely a successful way to gain revenge. - Out of focus
5. Risk-taking is a less frequent motivation for espionage than the desire to feel important. - Out of focus
Re: Most people who betray their country through some form of &nbs [#permalink] 17 Jun 2018, 21:19
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