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Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv

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Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia's capital city?

(A) More of the cars in Donia's capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
(B) The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
(C) Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
(D) Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
(E) Most car trips in Donia's capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2008, 13:08
C is out as we are bothered about other pollutants.
D, if true, would weaken the claim

Out of A, B & E, I can eliminate B as the no. of cars sold has declined only "slightly", so it doesn't support the insignificant decline in the emissions.

Out of A & E, E helps to explain the situation better as even though more cars are made before 1993 than after, still some cars are made which should have reduced the emissions.

My choice - E.

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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Nihit wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993. - Does not help us explain WHY insignificant change?
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993. - Does not help us explain WHY insignificant change?
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.- Out of scope
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. - The stimulus says so, but this also does not explain why the insignificant change
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.- Perfect- What if the Catalytic converter does not work effectively, where is the desired change then ??





Is it E ?
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2008, 13:35
agree with the above explanation. Is the answer E ?

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2008, 20:53
Nihit wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993. -> this attracts but whats important is that argument says all new cars are made after 1993 ,and their proportion is high !!! no where it says old cars emit more of NO2
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993. -> irrelevant,proportion is high hence this does not affect
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993. -> outr of scope
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. -> this does not strengthen istead weakens saying pollution should reduce
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature. -> inspite of good proportion of new cars ,emission is reduced insignificantly ->explains rightly

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2008, 21:40
Nihit wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.


Between A and E,

E) is better since if converter does not work the levels wont decrease

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2009, 05:54
A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993---Good incorrect choice. But we are still told that there are comparatively high no. of new cars, therefore a significant drop should have been there
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993-----weakens. If it has declined only slightly then a significant decline in emissions should have been seen.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.---------out of scope
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. Does not explain the contrast
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature------CORRECT

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 07:22
Nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country as given in the argument
that means catalytic converter was actually performing its function; If it didn't than Nitrogen dioxide wouldn't have reduced at the first place.


If my understanding is incorrect please explain what role this statement plays :-
"nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country".

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 08:57
I pick E. What's the OA?

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 11:09
phamduyha wrote:
I pick E. What's the OA?


You are right. The answer for this question is (E).
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 22:50
Hi,

Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature

Dont you think the information marked above in red is out of bounds of the stimulus. If so how can option E be correct?

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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zuberahmed wrote:
Hi,

Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature

Dont you think the information marked above in red is out of bounds of the stimulus. If so how can option E be correct?


Look, there are two different things. One is '[highlight]new information[/highlight]'. Your options playing the role of premises provide new information to strengthen the conclusion/weaken the conclusion/explain the paradox.
The other thing is '[highlight]out of scope[/highlight]' i.e. when the option discusses something irrelevant to the argument. e.g. if I say "The country Monia's capital has witnesses a massive decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions since they introduced catalytic converters." This is out of scope because what happens in country Monia has nothing to do with what happens in country Donia.

The information in red is new information which explains the paradox that though in Donia nitrogen dioxide emissions have reduced significantly, they haven't reduced in Donia's capital. In Donia's capital, people don't travel long distances and hence the catalytic converters doesn't reach their effective working temperature.
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2012, 06:50
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
zuberahmed wrote:
Hi,

Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature

Dont you think the information marked above in red is out of bounds of the stimulus. If so how can option E be correct?


Look, there are two different things. One is '[highlight]new information[/highlight]'. Your options playing the role of premises provide new information to strengthen the conclusion/weaken the conclusion/explain the paradox.
The other thing is '[highlight]out of scope[/highlight]' i.e. when the option discusses something irrelevant to the argument. e.g. if I say "The country Monia's capital has witnesses a massive decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions since they introduced catalytic converters." This is out of scope because what happens in country Monia has nothing to do with what happens in country Donia.

The information in red is new information which explains the paradox that though in Donia nitrogen dioxide emissions have reduced significantly, they haven't reduced in Donia's capital. In Donia's capital, people don't travel long distances and hence the catalytic converters doesn't reach their effective working temperature.


I totally agree with Karishma. In fact, most of the times, we can answer strengthen/weaken/paradox questions by bringing " relevant additional info". Only for assumption questions, we have to confine to the argument.
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2012, 09:06
E is correct
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia's capital city?

(A) More of the cars in Donia's capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
(B) The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
(C) Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
(D) Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
(E) Most car trips in Donia's capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.
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Last edited by hazelnut on 22 Jul 2017, 17:49, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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At first glance A is attractive, however this is answer is wrong for a similar reason that percent-style answers are often wrong. Take the following scenario with regard to A): the country folk reduce their pre-1993 car population from 100% to 70%, which creates a significant reduction in nitrogen pollution.

So far so good, this scenario doesn't deviate from the conditions in the argument.

Then say the city slickers do the same, but even more so, from 100% to 51%.

Again this is fine, the argument says that the city slickers are more likely to buy new cars.

So in the above scenario, we satisfy all the condition of the argument. We have also satisfied A) because there are 51% 'old cars' in the city, which means there are more old cars than new. However, given that we see a significant drop in pollution nationally with a 0% to 30% increase in new cars, shouldn't we expect to see a much greater improvement in the city if we have 0% to 49% uptake of new cars? This argument actually takes us the other way! A) cannot be correct because it brings us no closer to bridging the discrepancy.

For those that are interested, E) is correct because it bridges the gap between the 'expected' and the actual. It does so by accounting for the increase in new cars in the city, while offering a reason why this hasn't had an effect. The reason being that new cars require a minimum distance to be eco-friendly and this distance is rarely reached. In other words, the solution is ineffectual.

Hope that helps!
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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maybeam wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia's capital city?
A. More of the cars in Donia's capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
E. Most car trips in Donia's capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.

Quote:
i understand OA makes sense, but why choice A is ruled out?


it is very well mentioned that "..............Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high"
so, (A) can not be considered correct.

(E) wins because the catalytic converter installed in the new cars are not effective , so the purpose of emission reduction failed.
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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Aah!! the famous trap of differing groups.
while the opening sentences talk about Donia as a country, the argument quickly shifts to the capital city.
the statement -
Quote:
Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.


moves the focus from the nation to its capital.
also, the question asks us about the capital city.

so, knowing that proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city is more than old cars, how can we not rule out option A which mentions just the opposite.


look out for option choices involving only Donia's capital city and apply POE to them.
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2012, 22:25
maybeam wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia's capital city?
A. More of the cars in Donia's capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
E. Most car trips in Donia's capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.

Quote:
i understand OA makes sense, but why choice A is ruled out?



Lets plug in numbers so that A is ruled out , lets say we have 1000 cars in capital , 510 , 490 would be the respective numbers of cars produced before and after 1993. 490 could represent lets say a very high proportion of new cars in Donia ie 50% , the argument says that the corresponding decrease that should have been attributed to these 490*50/100 cars has not been seen. Hope it makes sense now. Option A only plays with numbers without actually justifying the argument gap
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic conv [#permalink]

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