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Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe

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Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Sep 2018, 21:22
10
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A
B
C
D
E

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Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that mav one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.


A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead

B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead

C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading

D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one day lead

E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading


The issue I have here is that in A (OA), there is no || between one goal is to develop. Because of that I chose C, although A sounds much better.
Could anybody clarify?

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Originally posted by noboru on 19 Jun 2010, 16:27.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Sep 2018, 21:22, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2012, 08:50
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Hi,

Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that mav one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.

Image

1. Whenever we need to present the intent or the purpose (or the goal, as written in the sentence) of ant action, we use “to verb” form (infinitive). For example: Harry started this campaign to aware people of the ill effects of child labor.
In this sentence, the purpose of starting the campaign is “to aware” people of something. Hence, “to verb” form has been used to show the intent. Similarly, the goal of the semiconductor research is “to develop” a better silicon chip. Hence, the purpose has been correctly denoted in “to verb form” (to develop).
2. Use of “that” clause is correct here because it clearly modifies the preceding noun “a silicon chip”, giving additional information about that chip.
3. “a development that may one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors” – the structure of this portion of the sentence is – noun (a development) + noun modifier (that may one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors). Now, noun + noun modifiers are very versatile. They can either modify the closest noun phrase (appositive modifier) or they can modify the entire preceding clause (absolute modifier). Whether a noun + noun modifier will modify the preceding noun phrase or the preceding clause depends upon the context of the sentence. In this sentence it does not make sense for the noun + noun modifier to modify the closest noun phrase “light signals”. From the sentence itself, we know what the development is talking about. Hence, here the noun + noun modifier is functioning like the absolute modifier that correctly modifies the entire preceding clause. You may refer to the following link for more details and examples: http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=584
4. So, there is no error in this sentence. The sentence is correct as is.

POE:


A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead: Correct as is.

B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead: Incorrect.
i. Using “with the capability” with a non-living object is inappropriate. Consider these sentences:
a. Tom can jump real high. OR Tom has the capability to jump real high. (Both are correct.)
b. This paper can absorb a lot of water. (Not appropriate but in spoken English we hardly pay heed to such things and thus we assume that such expressions are fine in writing as well. However, this is not the case.).
c. This paper has the capability to hold a lot of water. (correct)
So in this choice, use of “with the capability” with non-living “a silicon chip” is not proper.
ii. With “the capability” we generally use “to verb” forms. For e.g., John has the capability/ability to move very heavy objects with his left hand. In this sentence “capability of transmitting…” is not idiomatic.
iii. Reference of “which” is not clear. Being a noun modifier, “which” should modify the closest noun. But that will not make sense here because per the context of the sentence, it is the development of the silicon chip that will lead to something. Hence, use of “which” is incorrect.

C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading: Incorrect.
i. Use of “the development” fails to show the purpose of the research. Also, the way this choice has been written it seems to suggest that the research itself is the development that has already taken place.
ii. Same idiom errors (has the capability and capability of…) as in B.
iii. Verb-ing “leading” non-sensically refers to “one day”.

D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one day lead: Incorrect.
i. Use of “developing” fails to establish the purpose of the research.
ii. Same “which” clause reference error as in B.

E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading: Incorrect.
i. Use of “developing” fails to establish the purpose of the research.\
ii. “with this development maybe one day leading” is ungrammatical. Don’t even know what it is trying to convey.

Image

1. Idioms must always be correctly worded.
2. Use “to verb” forms to show the purpose or the intent of an action.
3. Noun + noun modifier can either modify the closest noun phrase or the entire preceding clause, depending entirely upon the context of the sentence.
4. The reference of the relative pronouns must be clear.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha

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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2010, 20:18
1
Lets see here -

to x .... to y.
e.g
to see is to believe. (Correct)
to do x is to do y (Correct)

to develop x.......that one day may lead to y

C does not follow the idiom. plus "leading" is progressive - changes the meaning. We are talking about the future.

C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and
receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2010, 06:20
noboru,

I dont think it is question on ||sm. I think the main concern is on style and correctness.
One goal....is to develop is correct. I prefer to+infinitive to verb+ing. Moreover, goal/hopes donot come with such noun phrases.

Plug-in C:
Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading to smaller, faster semiconductors.

In A, can is better than the capability of in C.


noboru wrote:
Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that mav one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.

A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a
development that may one day lead
B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light
signals directly, which may one day lead
C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and
receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading
D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which
may one day lead
E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals
directly, with this development maybe one day leading

The issue I have here is that in A (OA), there is no || between one goal is to develop. Because of that I chose C, although A sounds much better.
Could anybody clarify?

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Re: *700* Now that so much data travels via light  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2015, 04:00
Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.

A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead -> A good construction, Infinitve to express intent and Noun + Noun Modifier structure which is used to modify the complete goal to develop a silicon chip.

B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead -> which is a relative pronoun and cannot modify a clause.

C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading
Instead of using infinitive, the goal is development (a noun phrase) that makes the sentence verbose.

D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one day lead -> Same issue as B) and gerund (developing) doesn't show the intent.

E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading -> Gerund construction and with makes it as adverbial modifier and it modifies the verb of the previous clause which doesn't make sense.
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Re: *700* Now that so much data travels via light  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2015, 14:28
A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead
“to+verb” is used to show purpose
Noun+noun modifier clearly modifies “silicon chip”.
The sentence is correct as it is.

B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead
capability of… is wordy. “which may..” modifies the closest noun “signals”, and is incorrect.

C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading
the goal is to develop, not the development
This choice introduces a modifier error.

D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one day lead
This choice introduces a new error. Verb “is” is followed by “-ing” form. This leads to ambiguity. To show meaning – “to+verb” must be used. Which modifies signals.

E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading
Same error as in D
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2017, 08:11
Simplify sentences.

One goal is...
(A) to develop a chip that can do x & y, a development that may lead to z

(B) to develop a chip with the capability of doing x & y, which may lead to z

(C) the development of a chip that has the capability of doing x & y, a development maybe leading to z

(D) developing a chip that can do x & y, which may lead to z

(E) developing a chip with the ability to do x and y, with this development maybe leading to z

Note that the end of the sentence is a modifier. What does it target? what may lead to faster semiconductors? There is no single noun, so we cannot use a noun modifier. When the GMAT wants to refer to something other than the near noun or noun phrase, it uses an -ing or a noun to begin the modifier. In this case, "a development..." is the right way to start the modifier. We can eliminate B, D and E.

C is very inefficient when compared to A. "a chip that can transmit" is more concise than "a chip with the capability of transmitting".

Furthermore, C uses the awkward construct "a development maybe leading to ..." whereas A states "a development that may lead to...". A is the best answer.
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2019, 15:52
Hi I thought the when you have a noun + to be verb, you must have a noun/adjective at an end. A goal cannot be a verb. Noun + to be + noun/adjective.

Is this a debatable OA since A incorrectly lists a goal as a verb?
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2019, 05:38
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kichen wrote

Quote:
Hi I thought the when you have a noun + to be verb, you must have a noun/adjective at an end. A goal cannot be a verb. Noun + to be + noun/adjective.

Is this a debatable OA since A incorrectly lists a goal as a verb?


Sorry, I could not get at what the poster means by the quote, especially what is the noun+ to be verb in A, and where a goal is depicted as a verb. Could he please articulate his point more explicitly by stating the very sentence?

Thanks and back to the thread


Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.

The purpose of a goal is best expressed in the infinitive. Any other diction is stylistically incorrect


A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead -- correct choice

B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead

Which has no reference. It cannot point to the signals; nor can it refer to the action of transmitting and receiving.

C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading -

1. A development may be incidental, coincidental, accidental, declarative, or indicative but not intentional the development is inferior to 'to develop'.

2. The word 'maybe' is superfluous.

D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one-day lead--

1. Developing is wrong.
2., which is wrong.


E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading

1. Developing is wrong
2. Sentence structure is very clumsy.

However, in the hall, it might be worthwhile to focus on the infinitive of purpose and hit three mangoes with one stone namely C, D, and E. Then it becomes easier to handle A and B in the right perspective.
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2019, 08:54
my hobby is reading english books.

is this correct ? when can we use "doing" in place of 'to do'. pls explain more
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2019, 05:13
egmat wrote:

B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead: Incorrect.
i. Using “with the capability” with a non-living object is inappropriate. Consider these sentences:
a. Tom can jump real high. OR Tom has the capability to jump real high. (Both are correct.)
b. This paper can absorb a lot of water. (Not appropriate but in spoken English we hardly pay heed to such things and thus we assume that such expressions are fine in writing as well. However, this is not the case.).
c. This paper has the capability to hold a lot of water. (correct)
So in this choice, use of “with the capability” with non-living “a silicon chip” is not proper.
ii. With “the capability” we generally use “to verb” forms. For e.g., John has the capability/ability to move very heavy objects with his left hand. In this sentence “capability of transmitting…” is not idiomatic.
iii. Reference of “which” is not clear. Being a noun modifier, “which” should modify the closest noun. But that will not make sense here because per the context of the sentence, it is the development of the silicon chip that will lead to something. Hence, use of “which” is incorrect.


Regarding iii., could you make the argument that "with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly" is a modifier for "silicon chip", and thus the "which" could refer to "silicon chip" without issues?
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Re: Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibe   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2019, 05:13
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