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Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt

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Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 09:44
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 102, Date : 23-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt - follow ellipsoid orbits that are predictable in nature. While they may shift over billions of years, on a million-year timescale these objects are relatively easy to model. In contrast, scientists have long debated why small objects beyond Neptune and Pluto tend to have orbits that are circular in nature and irregular on the million year timescale. Most theorized that there must be an elusive “ninth planet” beyond Neptune that had enough mass to deform the orbits of smaller objects in close proximity. However, as telescope technology has increased in complexity, there has been no sign of an additional planet of sufficient size to meet this requirement.

To investigate the cause of these irregularities and find an alternate explanation, Madigan et al. used computer simulations to model the way different objects in the outer solar system moved around the sun. They saw that within the simulation the smaller objects move more quickly than do larger ones. This allowed them to notice a peculiar phenomenon. As the objects move around the sun, pile ups of objects in orbits close to one another occur as smaller objects catch up to bigger ones, causing a gravitational “jostling” effect. This effect causes the usually ellipsoid orbits to deform into the circular ones that scientists have tried to explain for so long. It also leads to the temporary creation of a bigger object that moves more slowly and moves further away from the sun. As the conglomeration breaks up, the now-smaller objects begin to move more quickly are pulled closer to the sun, creating the hypothesized irregularities in the objects’ orbits.
1) Which of the following best describes the structure of this passage?

A) A scientific norm is explained and an interpretation of that norm is presented and then rejected.
B) Two theories about a scientific observation are presented and one is rejected as impractical.
C) Two methods for predicting a scientific phenomenon are presented and one is deemed more suitable.
D) A former scientific theory is presented and then rejected before an alternative theory is revealed and confirmed.
E) A scientific problem is introduced, a potential answer is discarded, and an alternative explanation is posed.



2) It can be inferred that a large planet as described in paragraph 1 would

A) move more quickly around the sun than would smaller planetoids.
B) move more slowly around the sun than would smaller planetoids.
C) orbit closer to the sun than would smaller planetoids.
D) explain all deviations in other objects’ orbits.
E) suggest an explanation for gravitational jostling.



3) Within the context of the second paragraph, why is it important that large objects move around the sun more slowly than do smaller ones?

A) If there was no difference in the speed at which the objects move, jostling may not occur.
B) Relative speeds directly cause changes in the orbits of objects in the outer solar system.
C) The fact that larger objects move so slowly definitively proves that an additional planet beyond Neptune cannot exist.
D) The differences in speed directly explain the irregularities in the distance between objects in the outer solar system and the sun.
E) Larger objects have more inertia and could distort other objects’ orbits more if they moved more quickly.




Difficulty Level: 650

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Re: Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 10:17
Large planets are mentioned in Paragraph 2 whereas Q2 states Paragraph 1.
Am I missing something for Q2 ?
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Re: Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 10:30
TaN1213 wrote:
Large planets are mentioned in Paragraph 2 whereas Q2 states Paragraph 1.
Am I missing something for Q2 ?


Hi
Large planets can be referred to ''Most theorized that there must be an elusive “ninth planet” beyond Neptune that had enough mass to deform the orbits of smaller objects in close proximity.'' in 1st paragraph.
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Re: Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2018, 11:50
2
for Q3
Whenever you are asked to interpret the significance of a single sentence or idea within the context of a larger paragraph, remember that you should first look at that sentence or idea by itself before you look at it in context. This question asks why it's important that large objects move more slowly than do smaller ones. In the second paragraph, you are told that "pile ups" of different sizes of objects occur as small objects catch up to larger ones within the same orbit. It's these pile ups that cause the gravitational jostling effect that in turn leads to the circular shape of the orbits. So without the difference in speed, the small objects wouldn't catch up, so the jostling wouldn't occur. This matches answer choice (A).

Among the other answers, (B) and (E) can be eliminated because (even if they are true) there is no evidence in the context of the paragraph. Choice (C) can be eliminated because the jostling effect means that the effect the planet was thought responsible for occurs without the planet, and choice (D) can be eliminated because the speed itself doesn't account for the changes - the jostling caused by the speed accounts for the changes.
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New post 23 Mar 2019, 05:01
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Re: Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 18:08
1
1) Which of the following best describes the structure of this passage?

A) A scientific norm is explained and an interpretation of that norm is presented and then rejected. - out of scope
B) Two theories about a scientific observation are presented and one is rejected as impractical. - out of scope
C) Two methods for predicting a scientific phenomenon are presented and one is deemed more suitable. - out of scope
D) A former scientific theory is presented and then rejected before an alternative theory is revealed and confirmed. - Partial scope. No confirmation is done.
E) A scientific problem is introduced, a potential answer is discarded, and an alternative explanation is posed. - that is the main idea of the passage

2) It can be inferred that a large planet as described in paragraph 1 would

A) move more quickly around the sun than would smaller planetoids. - opposite
B) move more slowly around the sun than would smaller planetoids. - as stated in the 1st para
C) orbit closer to the sun than would smaller planetoids. - out of scope
D) explain all deviations in other objects’ orbits. - out of scope
E) suggest an explanation for gravitational jostling. - out of scope

3) Within the context of the second paragraph, why is it important that large objects move around the sun more slowly than do smaller ones?

A) If there was no difference in the speed at which the objects move, jostling may not occur. - this is the main reason for the same
B) Relative speeds directly cause changes in the orbits of objects in the outer solar system. - out of scope
C) The fact that larger objects move so slowly definitively proves that an additional planet beyond Neptune cannot exist. - out of scope
D) The differences in speed directly explain the irregularities in the distance between objects in the outer solar system and the sun - out of scope
E) Larger objects have more inertia and could distort other objects’ orbits more if they moved more quickly. - out of scope
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Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 08:37
1
Mapping of the Passage-
P1: P and AB - follow orbits, predictable route
They shift, are easy to model,
scientists, small objects beyond N &P, circular, irregular, 9th, deform, but not as thought

P2: Madigan,comp simulations, small>large- speed
grav jostling effect
explanation + conclusion
rhyme - Let me know how was the mapping.
I am struggling with RC, right now and I hope to improve. I am open to all suggestions.
1. I am trying to improve my mapping
2. I need help as I miss out terms in the passage and thus, I choose wrong answers. Let me know what I should do to improve it.


I only did one answer right, but after assessment, I came to the following conclusions.

1) Which of the following best describes the structure of this passage?

A) A scientific norm is explained and an interpretation of that norm is presented and then rejected. - Incorrect, one norm was stated, rejected. Another one was explained
B) Two theories about a scientific observation are presented and one is rejected as impractical - Incorrect, However, as telescope technology has increased in complexity, there has been no sign of an additional planet of sufficient size to meet this requirement. the first theory did not have results. It did not state that it was impractical.
C) Two methods for predicting a scientific phenomenon are presented and one is deemed more suitable - Incorrect, partially correct. One theory is more suitable. Other one did not produce results. Hence, can't be compared.
D) A former scientific theory is presented and then rejected before an alternative theory is revealed and confirmed.- Incorrect (I choose this initially), But look carefully, A former scientific theory is presented and then rejected before an alternative theory is revealed this is correct, but nothing was confirmed.
E) A scientific problem is introduced, a potential answer is discarded, and an alternative explanation is posed. - Correct.

Answer- E

2) It can be inferred that a large planet as described in paragraph 1 would
( I am not so sure where it is mentioned in para-1, but had gone with para-2 stating facts)
Larger ones do - a) move quickly than small
b) contribute to the jostling process
c) Jostling helps in the temporary creation of bigger objects to move slowly and further away from the sun.

A) move more quickly around the sun than would smaller planetoids. - Incorrect, check option (a), it moves slowly: Eliminate
B) move more slowly around the sun than would smaller planetoids. - Correct, all check
C) orbit closer to the sun than would smaller planetoids. - Incorrect, the now-smaller objects begin to move more quickly are pulled closer to the sun, creating the hypothesized irregularities in the objects’ orbits. , that's all that is mentioned. No comparison.
D) explain all deviations in other objects’ orbits. - Incorrect, the now-smaller objects begin to move more quickly are pulled closer to the sun, creating the hypothesized irregularities in the objects’ orbits. , the smaller ones do that, not the large ones
E) suggest an explanation for gravitational jostling. - Incorrect, large and small both explain, not singular.

Answer - B

3) Within the context of the second paragraph, why is it important that large objects move around the sun more slowly than do smaller ones?
Larger ones do - a) move quickly than small
b) contribute to the jostling process
c) Jostling helps in the temporary creation of bigger objects to move slowly and further away from the sun.

A) If there was no difference in the speed at which the objects move, jostling may not occur. - Hold, okay, maybe. That was somewhat mentioned in the passage
B) Relative speeds directly cause changes in the orbits of objects in the outer solar system.- Incorrect, Smaller objects do that, not relative speed.
C) The fact that larger objects move so slowly definitively proves that an additional planet beyond Neptune cannot exist. - Incorrect, no such info provided in the passage
D) The differences in speed directly explain the irregularities in the distance between objects in the outer solar system and the sun. - Incorrect, again, smaller ones do that
E) Larger objects have more inertia and could distort other objects’ orbits more if they moved more quickly.- Incorrect, no idea if that is possible, it's not mentioned in the passage.

Answer- A

I hope my explanations are right, feel free to correct me. Apologise in advance if I have made any error in understanding.
I want to score above 700+. I don't have people around me to advise me on GMAT. I would be grateful for any sort of help.
Thank you in advance.
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Objects in the inner solar system - the planets and asteroid belt   [#permalink] 05 Apr 2019, 08:37
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