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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not

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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Nov 2017, 11:19
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.

Originally posted by skgmt on 16 Jun 2015, 05:30.
Last edited by Mahmud6 on 25 Nov 2017, 11:19, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2015, 11:11
Please correct the OA..

the correct ans is C
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2015, 19:46
The answer is incorrect so please either remove the question or correct the OA
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 20:53
Took me a while to understand why answer choice A is incorrect. I am still not wholly convinced that C could be a correct answer choice, since several isn't sufficient to indicate representativeness. Tricky question.

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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2017, 06:54
A: talks about other doctors, why do they judge it. irrelevant
B: talks about other ankle injuries. irrelevant
C: means survey was big enough. let's negate=>weaks. let's keep this one
D: surgically repared..irrelevant
E: other than ankle bones. one word off-common trap.

Answer is C
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2017, 05:03
IMO C : tells you that the study was extensive and done in a variety of environments, thus strengthening
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2017, 16:10
Tough one but I see why this is C - thanks!
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2017, 02:14
"C" shows that the sample of x-ray data examined was probably sufficiently representative of cases of ankle fracture judged to be stable by orthopedists.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2017, 05:27
B is the answer as we have to look into the best choice .
C does not make any sense as x-rays being reviewed is not solving our problem of whether follow up x rays of ankle fractures is a waste of money or not .
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New post 16 Sep 2017, 16:44
A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.
D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.

To strengthen the argument, there was a need of an option confirming that in stable ankle fractures there indeed is no need for a follow up x-ray.
Since, we do not have any option confirming the same, option C is the best choice because it claims that a large number of reports from various doctors were reviewed, thus increasing the validity of the survey/review, consequently strengthening the argument.

Option E looks at least a little convincing but it again fails to provide a legitimate reason for believing that follow up x-ray is not needed. It claims that Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays which one might believe is done only to increase the customers bill (and serves no other purpose), thus strengthening the argument, but it confirms nothing.

Hope my reasoning makes sense.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2017, 17:54
Ans :
Concl: it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable.
A) Out of scope . comparing ortho and gp. We are concerned only with ortho
B)We are concerned only with the ankle surgeries that are deemed stable.... Doesnt strenghthen conclusion
C) Ans
D)Weakens
E) Out of scope
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2017, 13:56
Using POE, test takers can still choose C.
The pattern in C is rare. C basically says results of X-rays ordered by other orthopedists are same.

A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2018, 22:17
Hi GMATNinja generis GMATNinjaTwo

How do we perform PoE for B and C when RESULTS or outcomes are NOT known?
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2018, 00:25
Vithal wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 45
Page: 134
Difficulty:



Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.
D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.


I MISS this one
try to weaken first. if the review is not good, we can not generalize
choice c show that the review is good. so c is correct.

to know what we find in answer choices, we try to criticize the argument before going to answer choices.

if the argument is about generalization, ask is yourself is generalization is good.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2018, 15:28
adkikani wrote:
Hi GMATNinja generis @GmatininjaTwo

How do we perform PoE for B and C when RESULTS or outcomes are NOT known?

Before we look at POE, let's make sure we understand the argument. The conclusion is that "it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable." How does the author arrive at this conclusion?

  • "Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture." - The orthopedists think that the fractures are stable and don't require surgery. Just in case, some time after making that initial judgment, follow-up x-rays are ordered to check the injury.
  • A number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed.
  • In that review, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly.

Based on the review, it seems as though the follow-up x-rays are unnecessary. But how many x-rays were actually reviewed? We only know that "a number" of x-rays were reviewed. What if the review only included a handful of patients with the same highly-talented orthopedist? Without knowing the extent of the review, we cannot safely make a generalization.

We are looking for something that strengthens the argument.

Quote:
B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

Choice (B) describes the situation in which the initial x-ray reveals that the ankle is not fractured. The argument is not concerned with this situation. The argument deals with follow-up x-rays of stable ankle fractures. Choice (B) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

Ah ha... choice (C) tells us something about the extent of the review.

Does this prove that the conclusion is valid? Not at all. We still don't know the exact extent of the study. But does (C) strengthen the argument? Absolutely. Without choice (C), it would be entirely possible, for example, that the review included only one orthopedist or only one hospital. With (C), we at least know that the review included many different orthopedists and hospitals.

Choice (C) makes the argument better. Even though it does not prove that the conclusion is true, it certainly strengthens the argument. Thus, (C) is the best answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2018, 04:31
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This is a strengthen the argument question.

Like weaken, strengthen questions also require us to isolate the conclusion. As we will be looking for the answer that makes our belief stronger on the premise-conclusion relationship such as analogies, survey, reports, statistical data etc.

Also, protect the missing information
a) by keeping any option that fills the gap
b) by eliminating the answer that attacks the missing information

Expert suggestions: How do we know if what these experts or analysts think, matters? Eliminate any option that has the expert’s opinion.

Similarly, either introducing other examples doesn’t strengthen or introducing exceptions doesn’t weaken since in both the cases, there is just no way to automatically know that those other cases carry a sufficient resemblance to who or what the argument is about.

Eliminate any answer that instead of strengthening the argument, weakens it.

Causality and Strengthen Questions: The steps taken to prove a cause-effect relationship is strong requires the OPPOSITE steps as weakening:
o Prove that when the cause occurs, effect always takes place
o Prove that when effect occurs, it occurs because of the cause.
o Eliminate any other reasons that cause the effect.
o Prove that the relationship between C -> E cannot be reversed.
o Prove that statistical improbability won't occur.


Conclusion: Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
Assumption: The data that was used to review was from a good source and shows the correct representation.
A) Out of scope.
B) This option also doesn’t reinforce the idea that it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
C) This option tells us that the data in review was not biased. Keep this option.
D) This provides an alternate reason why the x-ray may be required.
E) Other than ankle bone is out of the scope of this argument.
C certainly helps and is the answer.


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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2018, 11:09
B talks about "initial xrays".. we are not really bothered about initial xrays... conclusion is about follow up xrays.. hence out of scope.
Thus, C.
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2018, 10:35
Step 1: Read the question stem:- Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?----> normal strengthen question!!

Step 2:- Analyze the stimulus:-
1) Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray ----> fractures - no need for surgery - x-ray is enough

2) because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. ------> x-ray so that --- reconfirm if everything is alright i.e. orthopedists have not misjudged in the first instance

3) When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. -------> reconfirmation on reviewing several X-rays - orthopedists have NOT misjudged

4) Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable. --------->henceforth no reconfirmation on whether "orthopedists have misjudged or not" - they always judge correctly that there is no need for surgery --henceforth no need for even an X-ray.

Step 3:- Some prethinking:- some additional information which confirms x rays are not useful & there is no risk if the xray is not taken. orthopedists judge correctly

Step 4: Review, analyze, eliminate wrong ones and select the right option:-

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly. -----> so what???-Clearly out of scope. No mention about the importance of x-rays

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle. ---> mentions about x-rays but the claim in this option is already mentioned in the stimulus & should raise suspicion and doubt if this is the correct answer choice, there is no additional info which would strengthen the argument...we can hang on to this one for a while.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.---------> now look at this one, I love it!! orthopedists judge correctly - sample size is adequate to conclude that this phenomenon is seen across several hospitals and many different orthopedists - i.e. orthopedists judge correctly - definitely a new information and strengthens the argument.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray. ------> increases the importance of Xrays---actually this option weakens the argument.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.---->out of scope, the stimulus speaks about ankle fractures only & the stimulus does not establish any relationship between fractures of bone & fractures of ankle bones.


Option C is the best answer choice!!
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2018, 10:52
GMATNinja
hello sir

if option E read as "orthopedists routinely order follow-up X-rays for fractures of ankle bone."
would the option strengthen the conclusion that"it is a waste of money to order follow-up X-rays of ankle fractures initially judges stable."?
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 07:34
JAIN09 wrote:
GMATNinja
hello sir

if option E read as "orthopedists routinely order follow-up X-rays for fractures of ankle bone."
would the option strengthen the conclusion that"it is a waste of money to order follow-up X-rays of ankle fractures initially judges stable."?

Even with that change, (E) wouldn't do much to strengthen the conclusion. We already know from the passage that, "Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable... are given follow-up x-rays." So your version of (E) wouldn't really give us any new information.

But don't torture yourself trying to come up with your own versions of the answer choices. :) As long as you understand why (E), as written, is incorrect, you're in great shape!
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