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One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is

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One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Sep 2019, 02:58
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 103, Date : 24-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is often related to another as an antithesis to its thesis. The thesis discipline tend to concern itself with discovery and classification of phenomena, to offer holistic explanations emphasizing pattern and form, and to use existing theory to explain the widest possible range of phenomena. The paired or antidiscipline, on the other hand, can be characterized by a more focused approach, concentrating on the units of construction, and by a belief that the discipline can be reformulated in terms of the issues and explanations of the antidiscipline.

The relationship of cytology (cell biology) to biochemistry in the late nineteenth century, when both disciplines were growing at a rapid pace, exemplifies such a pattern. Researchers in cell biology found mounting evidence of an intricate cell architecture. They also deduced the mysterious choreography of the chromosomes during cell division. Many biochemists, on the other hand, remained skeptical of the idea that so much structure existed, arguing that the chemical reactions that occur in cytological preparations might create the appearance of such structures. Also, they stood apart from the debate then raging over whether protoplasm, the complex of living material within a cell, is homogeneous, networklike, granular, or foamlike. Their interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life.

In general, biochemists judged cytologists to be too ignorant of chemistry to grasp the basic processes, whereas cytologists considered the methods of biochemists inadequate to characterize the structures of the living cell. The renewal of Mendelian genetics and, later, progress in chromosome mapping did little at first to effect a synthesis.

Both sides were essentially correct. Biochemistry has more than justified its extravagant early claims by explaining so much of the cellular machinery. But in achieving this feat (mostly since 1950) it has been partially transformed into the new discipline of molecular biology—biochemistry that deals with spatial arrangements and movements of large molecules. At the same time cytology has metamorphosed into modern cellular biology. Aided by electron microscopy, it has become more similar in language and outlook to molecular biology. The interaction of a discipline and its antidiscipline has moved both sciences toward a synthesis, namely molecular genetics.

This interaction between paired disciplines can have important results. In the case of late nineteenth-century cell research, progress was fueled by competition among the various attitudes and issues derived from cell biology and biochemistry. Joseph Fruton, a biochemist, has suggested that such competition and the resulting tensions among researchers are a principal source of vitality and “are likely to lead to unexpected and exciting novelties in the future, as they have in the past.”
1. Which one of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) Antithetical scientific disciplines can both stimulate and hinder one another’s research in complex ways.
(B) Antithetical scientific disciplines often interact with one another in ways that can be highly useful.
(C) As disciplines such as cytology and biochemistry advance, their interaction necessarily leads to a synthesis of their approaches.
(D) Cell research in the late nineteenth century was plagued by disagreements between cytologists and biochemists.
(E) In the late nineteenth century, cytologists and biochemists made many valuable discoveries that advanced scientific understanding of the cell.



2. The passage states that in the late nineteenth century cytologists deduced the

(A) maps of chromosomes
(B) chemical nature of protoplasm
(C) spatial relationship of molecules within the cell
(D) role of enzymes in biological processes
(E) sequence of the movement of chromosomes during cell division



3. It can be inferred from the passage that in the late nineteenth century the debate over the structural nature of protoplasm (Highlighted) was most likely carried on

(A) among cytologists
(B) among biochemists
(C) between cytologists and biochemists
(D) between cytologists and geneticists
(E) between biochemists and geneticists



4. According to the passage, cytologists in the late nineteenth century were critical of the cell research of biochemists because cytologists believed that

(A) the methods of biochemistry were inadequate to account for all of the chemical reactions that occurred in cytological preparations
(B) the methods of biochemistry could not adequately discover and explain the structures of living cells
(C) biochemists were not interested in the nature of protoplasm
(D) biochemists were not interested in cell division
(E) biochemists were too ignorant of cytology to understand the basic processes of the cell



5. The author quotes Fruton (Highlighted) primarily in order to

(A) restate the author’s own conclusions
(B) provide new evidence about the relationship of cytology to biochemistry
(C) summarize the position of the biochemists described in the passage
(D) illustrate the difficulties encountered in the synthesis of disciplines
(E) emphasize the ascendancy of the theories of biochemists over those of cytologists



6. Which one of the following inferences about when the enzyme theory of life was formulated can be drawn from the passage?

(A) The theory was formulated before the appearance of molecular biology.
(B) The theory was formulated before the initial discovery of cell architecture.
(C) The theory was formulated after the completion of chromosome mapping.
(D) The theory was formulated after a synthesis of the ideas of cytologists and biochemists had occurred.
(E) The theory was formulated at the same time as the beginning of the debate over the nature of protoplasm.



7. Which one of the following statements about cells is most compatible with the views of late nineteenth-century biochemists as those views are described in the passage?

(A) The secret of cell function resides in the structure of the cell.
(B) Only by discovering the chemical composition of protoplasm can the processes of the cell be understood.
(C) Scientific knowledge about the chemical composition of the cell can help to explain behavioral patterns in organisms.
(D) The most important issue to be resolved with regard to the cell is determining the physical characteristics of protoplasm.
(E) The methods of chemistry must be supplemented before a full account of the cell’s structures can be made.



8. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

(A) An account of a process is given, and then the reason for its occurrence is stated.
(B) A set of examples is provided and then a conclusion is drawn from them.
(C) A general proposition is stated, and then an example is given.
(D) A statement of principles is made, and then a rationale for them is debated.
(E) A problem is analyzed, and then a possible solution is discussed.




  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 1 (June 1991)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 24 Mar 2019, 06:33.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 25 Sep 2019, 02:58, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (648).
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Re: One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 11:41
2
1
Bunuel - I hope my explanations are right, feel free to correct me. Apologize in advance if I have made any error in understanding.
rhyme - I am following your advice, let me know if the mapping is proper and where I should improve.

Mapping the Passage:

P1: Antithesis to Thesis
Thesis - discovery, classification, etc
Anti/Paired - focussed approach(unit of construction)

P2: Late 19th cent
cytology v/s biochem
C: cell arch, chromosome
B: chem reactions for cell structure, protoplasm

P3: C v/s B judgement
Mendelin genetics, chromosome mapping

P4: B: expl cell machinery
1950 - molecular biology
C: modern biology
elec microscopy
mol genetics,synthesis

P5: competiton
Fruton " ..."

This took me 5 minutes, by the way
Most of my answers were wrong. But I'll try to reason out, how I might have gone wrong.


1. Which one of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) Antithetical scientific disciplines can both stimulate and hinder one another’s research in complex ways.- Incorrect, No hindering in one another's research
(B) Antithetical scientific disciplines often interact with one another in ways that can be highly useful. - Okay, hold Not so sure about highly useful
(C) As disciplines such as cytology and biochemistry advance, their interaction necessarily leads to a synthesis of their approaches. - Incorrect, I picked up this answer choice but as it's wrong. I assume it is because of the extreme language, necessarily lead to.
(D) Cell research in the late nineteenth century was plagued by disagreements between cytologists and biochemists.- Incorrect, Okay, that happened along with the synthesis of their work, progress through time.
(E) In the late nineteenth century, cytologists and biochemists made many valuable discoveries that advanced scientific understanding of the cell.- Incorrect, This looks like a sub-topic to me. This is discussed only in the last para. What about the previous 4?

Answer - B

2. The passage states that in the late nineteenth century cytologists deduced the
Looking for the word cytologists and jotting down their actions, as deduced means what did cytologists arrive at:
(a) cell arch
(b) chromosome choreography
Note: mapping of chromosomes, protoplasms all were already existing thought process.

(A) maps of chromosomes - Incorrect, they didn't discover that.
(B) chemical nature of protoplasm- Incorrect, they didn't discover that.
(C) spatial relationship of molecules within the cell. Incorrect, they didn't discover that. No one talked about relationships
(D) role of enzymes in biological processes- Incorrect, I don't think so. the passage doesn't state specifically
(E) sequence of the movement of chromosomes during cell division- Yes, Correct, they did discover that.

Answer- E

3. It can be inferred from the passage that in the late nineteenth century the debate over the structural nature of protoplasm (Highlighted) was most likely carried on

(A) among cytologists - Yes
(B) among biochemists - No
(C) between cytologists and biochemists - No
(D) between cytologists and geneticists - Eliminate D, E as there is no geneticists.
(E) between biochemists and geneticists

Also, they stood apart from the debate then raging over whether protoplasm, the complex of living material within a cell, is homogeneous, network like, granular, or foam-like.
They refer to biochemists. So, the debate has to be initiated by the Cytologists.
Stood apart from the debate. There was no between scenario. B did not get involved in the first place.
Answer - A

4. According to the passage, cytologists in the late nineteenth century were critical of the cell research of biochemists because cytologists believed that

(A) the methods of biochemistry were inadequate to account for all of the chemical reactions that occurred in cytological preparations - Incorrect, all: Extreme. Not sure, that is true
(B) the methods of biochemistry could not adequately discover and explain the structures of living cells- Okay, hold
(C) biochemists were not interested in the nature of protoplasm - Incorrect, Reversal Their interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life., Their refers to biochemists
(D) biochemists were not interested in cell division- Incorrect, Nothing as such is stated.
(E) biochemists were too ignorant of cytology to understand the basic processes of the cell - Incorrect, Reversal biochemists judged cytologists to be too ignorant of chemistry to grasp the basic processes,

Answer- B

5. The author quotes Fruton (Highlighted) primarily in order to

(A) restate the author’s own conclusions- Hold: As, the author stated The interaction of a discipline and its antidiscipline has moved both sciences toward a synthesis, namely molecular genetics. that means, the author is for the fusion of the two areas creating something new. Exactly what Joseph stated “are likely to lead to unexpected and exciting novelties in the future, as they have in the past.”
(B) provide new evidence about the relationship of cytology to biochemistry - Incorrect
(C) summarize the position of the biochemists described in the passage- Maybe
(D) illustrate the difficulties encountered in the synthesis of disciplines - No difficulties mentioned by him
(E) emphasize the ascendancy of the theories of biochemists over those of cytologists - Incorrect. Did not say that.

Why option C is wrong, because though he was a biologist he did not summarise a position based on passage, he gave his thought process.

Answer- A

6. Which one of the following inferences about when the enzyme theory of life was formulated can be drawn from the passage?

The time-consuming aspect was trying to search the word enzyme theory in the passage.

(A) The theory was formulated before the appearance of molecular biology. - Okay.
(B) The theory was formulated before the initial discovery of cell architecture.- Incorrect, Cell architecture was the first thing mentioned
(C) The theory was formulated after the completion of chromosome mapping. - Incorrect, later
(D) The theory was formulated after synthesis of the ideas of cytologists and biochemists had occurred. - Incorrect, later
(E) The theory was formulated at the same time as the beginning of the debate over the nature of protoplasm. - Incorrect, There was no debate on protoplasm. Cytologists were solely interested in that topic.

Mapping out the terms before and after enzyme theory:
cell architecture + chromosome choreography
Their interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life.
molecular biology—biochemistry that deals with spatial arrangements and movements of large molecules.
renewal of Mendelian genetics and, later, progress in chromosome mapping did little at first to effect a synthesis.
justified its extravagant early claims by explaining so much of the cellular machinery

Answer- A

7. Which one of the following statements about cells is most compatible with the views of late nineteenth-century biochemists as those views are described in the passage?


(A) The secret of cell function resides in the structure of the cell. Incorrect, no such explanation
(B) Only by discovering the chemical composition of protoplasm can the processes of the cell be understood. - Yes, biologists did say that
(C) Scientific knowledge about the chemical composition of the cell can help to explain behavioral patterns in organisms. - Incorrect, no such explanation
(D) The most important issue to be resolved with regard to the cell is determining the physical characteristics of protoplasm.- Incorrect, no such explanation
(E) The methods of chemistry must be supplemented before a full account of the cell’s structures can be made.- Incorrect, Incorrect, no such explanation


8. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

(A) An account of a process is given, and then the reason for its occurrence is stated. - Incorrect, no reasons are stated.
(B) A set of examples is provided and then a conclusion is drawn from them. Incorrect, no set of examples, only one cell structure example is taken.
(C) A general proposition is stated, and then an example is given.
(D) A statement of principles is made, and then a rationale for them is debated.
(E) A problem is analyzed, and then a possible solution is discussed. - Incorrect, no possible solutions were discussed.

I chose D, The answer is C.
Let me know the reasoning behind it.


I am struggling with RC, right now and I hope to improve. I am open to all suggestions.
1. I am trying to improve my mapping
2. I need help as I miss out terms in the passage and thus, I choose wrong answers. Let me know what I should do to improve it.

I want to score above 700+. I don't have people around me to advise me on GMAT. I would be grateful for any sort of help.
Thank you in advance.
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Re: One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2019, 06:56
1. Which one of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
(A) Antithetical scientific disciplines can both stimulate and hinder one another’s research in complex ways. may be true, but hindering is not proposed in the passage
(B) Antithetical scientific disciplines often interact with one another in ways that can be highly useful.
(C) As disciplines such as cytology and biochemistry advance, their interaction necessarily leads to a synthesis of their approaches. cytology and biochemistry are only examples and constitute only a part of the main idea; "necessarily" is a stretch
(D) Cell research in the late nineteenth century was plagued by disagreements between cytologists and biochemists. the scope of this seem to encompass the second and third para
(E) In the late nineteenth century, cytologists and biochemists made many valuable discoveries that advanced scientific understanding of the cell. this seems to allude only to the last para

2. The passage states that in the late nineteenth century cytologists deduced the
Relevant text: <...> in the late nineteenth century, when <...>. They also deduced the mysterious choreography of the chromosomes during cell division.
(A) maps of chromosomes comes only after the discussion of the discovery and the the passage does not say who developed the map
(B) chemical nature of protoplasm this is a concern of biochemists
(C) spatial relationship of molecules within the cell comes later in the passage and is a concern of molecular biology
(D) role of enzymes in biological processes again - biochemists
(E) sequence of the movement of chromosomes during cell division

3. It can be inferred from the passage that in the late nineteenth century the debate over the structural nature of protoplasm (Highlighted) was most likely carried on
Relevant text: Also, they stood apart from the debate then raging over whether protoplasm <...>
(A) among cytologists correct: since the second para is concerned about the difference between the two disciplines (thesis and antithesis), it can be inferred that biochemists shied away from the debate while cytologists participated in it
(B) among biochemists
(C) between cytologists and biochemists
(D) between cytologists and geneticists
(E) between biochemists and geneticists

4. According to the passage, cytologists in the late nineteenth century were critical of the cell research of biochemists because cytologists believed that
Relevant text: In general, <...> , whereas cytologists considered the methods of biochemists inadequate to characterize the structures of the living cell.
(A) the methods of biochemistry were inadequate to account for all of the chemical reactions that occurred in cytological preparations if anything, chemical reactions was a concern of biochemists
(B) the methods of biochemistry could not adequately discover and explain the structures of living cells correct
(C) biochemists were not interested in the nature of protoplasm
(D) biochemists were not interested in cell division
(E) biochemists were too ignorant of cytology to understand the basic processes of the cell

5. The author quotes Fruton (Highlighted) primarily in order to
Relevant text: This interaction between paired disciplines can have important results. <...> Joseph Fruton, a biochemist, has suggested that such competition and the resulting tensions among researchers are a principal source of vitality and “are likely to lead to unexpected and exciting novelties in the future, as they have in the past.”
(A) restate the author’s own conclusions this pretty much sums up the citation
(B) provide new evidence about the relationship of cytology to biochemistry
(C) summarize the position of the biochemists described in the passage
(D) illustrate the difficulties encountered in the synthesis of disciplines
(E) emphasize the ascendancy of the theories of biochemists over those of cytologists don't know what "ascendancy" means, but "over" suggests that inequality of the theories, something that is different from the last para

6. Which one of the following inferences about when the enzyme theory of life was formulated can be drawn from the passage?
Relevant text: The relationship of cytology (cell biology) to biochemistry in the late nineteenth century, <...> Their [biochemist] interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life. <...> But in achieving this feat (mostly since 1950) it has been partially transformed into the new discipline of molecular biology
(A) The theory was formulated before the appearance of molecular biology. correct
(B) The theory was formulated before the initial discovery of cell architecture.
(C) The theory was formulated after the completion of chromosome mapping.
(D) The theory was formulated after a synthesis of the ideas of cytologists and biochemists had occurred. clearly wrong
(E) The theory was formulated at the same time as the beginning of the debate over the nature of protoplasm.

7. Which one of the following statements about cells is most compatible with the views of late nineteenth-century biochemists as those views are described in the passage?
Relevant text: Many biochemists, on the other hand, remained skeptical of the idea that so much structure existed, arguing that the chemical reactions that occur in cytological preparations might create the appearance of such structures. <...> Their interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life.
(A) The secret of cell function resides in the structure of the cell.
(B) Only by discovering the chemical composition of protoplasm can the processes of the cell be understood. correct
(C) Scientific knowledge about the chemical composition of the cell can help to explain behavioral patterns in organisms.
(D) The most important issue to be resolved with regard to the cell is determining the physical characteristics of protoplasm.
(E) The methods of chemistry must be supplemented before a full account of the cell’s structures can be made. suggest that they would undermine their own approach

8. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?
(A) An account of a process is given, and then the reason for its occurrence is stated.
(B) A set of examples is provided and then a conclusion is drawn from them.
(C) A general proposition is stated, and then an example is given. correct
(D) A statement of principles is made, and then a rationale for them is debated.
(E) A problem is analyzed, and then a possible solution is discussed.
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Re: One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 07:17
1
Hi everyone,
Took 17 minutes and got 7/8 correct. Took 5 minutes to read the passage, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

P1: athetesis and thesis mechanism
P2: CT & BC
P3: CT & BC' view of each others
P4: CT and BC are both correct
P5: Benefits of this interaction

MP: To explain the scientific principle of thesis and antithesis through CT and BC


1. Which one of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Refer to the main point above

(A) Antithetical scientific disciplines can both stimulate and hinder one another’s research in complex ways.
Here hinder is inconsistent. Hence incorrect

(B) Antithetical scientific disciplines often interact with one another in ways that can be highly useful.
That's how it worked out for CT and BC. Hence correct

(C) As disciplines such as cytology and biochemistry advance, their interaction necessarily leads to a synthesis of their approaches.
Necessarily doesn't work here. Nowhere is mentioned such thing. Hence incorrect

(D) Cell research in the late nineteenth century was plagued by disagreements between cytologists and biochemists.
Definitely not the main point. The passage is trying to prove the benefits of the interaction and not to highlight a debate. Hence incorrect

(E) In the late nineteenth century, cytologists and biochemists made many valuable discoveries that advanced scientific understanding of the cell.
This is just a fact and the passage wants to explain a scientific principle. Hence incorrect

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. The passage states that in the late nineteenth century cytologists deduced the

Pre-thinking:
Refer to P2 to answer this question.
Citologysts discovered:
#1 importance of the architecture of the cell
#2 deduction of the choreography of C during cell division



(A) maps of chromosomes
maps never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(B) chemical nature of protoplasm
Protoplasm is subject of a debate. Plus the chemical nature is not the issue at hand; the physical nature is! Hence incorrect

(C) spatial relationship of molecules within the cell
Spatial relationships are not discussed in this paragraph. Hence incorrect

(D) role of enzymes in biological processes
not mentioned in this paragraph. Hence incorrect

(E) sequence of the movement of chromosomes during cell division
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. It can be inferred from the passage that in the late nineteenth century the debate over the structural nature of protoplasm (Highlighted) was most likely carried on

Pre-thinking:
In this paragraph Biochemists are presented in contrast to Cytologists. They didn't agree with the structure deduced by CTs and then in the highlighted portion they stood away from a debate. Now we can infer that Cytologists were part of that debate.


(A) among cytologists
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(B) among biochemists
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect.

(C) between cytologists and biochemists
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect.

(D) between cytologists and geneticists
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect.

(E) between biochemists and geneticists
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. According to the passage, cytologists in the late nineteenth century were critical of the cell research of biochemists because cytologists believed that

Pre-thinking:
Refer to P3 to answer this question. "whereas cytologists considered the methods of biochemists inadequate to characterize the structures of the living cell."


(A) the methods of biochemistry were inadequate to account for all of the chemical reactions that occurred in cytological preparations
Inconsistent because of "the chemical reactions that occurred in cytological preparations" which does not represent in what BC were inadequate. Hence incorrect

(B) the methods of biochemistry could not adequately discover and explain the structures of living cells
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) biochemists were not interested in the nature of protoplasm
not in line with pre- thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) biochemists were not interested in cell division
not in line with pre- thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) biochemists were too ignorant of cytology to understand the basic processes of the cell
not in line with pre- thinking. Plus inconsistent because of ignorant. They just didn't have the means. Hence incorrect

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. The author quotes Fruton (Highlighted) primarily in order to

Pre-thinking:
State the benefits of the relation CT-BC


(A) restate the author’s own conclusions
Indeed the author conclusion is to state the benefits of the relation CT-BC. Hence correct

(B) provide new evidence about the relationship of cytology to biochemistry
No new evidence is presented. Hence incorrect

(C) summarize the position of the biochemists described in the passage
not in line with pre- thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) illustrate the difficulties encountered in the synthesis of disciplines
not in line with pre- thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) emphasize the ascendancy of the theories of biochemists over those of cytologists
not in line with pre- thinking. Hence incorrect


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Which one of the following inferences about when the enzyme theory of life was formulated can be drawn from the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Refer to P2 t answer this question. "Their interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life."


(A) The theory was formulated before the appearance of molecular biology.
P2 is about the 19th century right? When the author introduces molecular genetics we are already in the 20th century if you look at the temporary indicators in the passage. Hence correct

(B) The theory was formulated before the initial discovery of cell architecture.
Cannot infer that from the information given in P2. Hence incorrect

(C) The theory was formulated after the completion of chromosome mapping.
Cannot be inferred by the information given. Hence incorrect

(D) The theory was formulated after a synthesis of the ideas of cytologists and biochemists had occurred.
The synthesis was after the theory. Hence incorrect

(E) The theory was formulated at the same time as the beginning of the debate over the nature of protoplasm.
The beginning of the debate is not an information given to us. Hence incorrect

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Which one of the following statements about cells is most compatible with the views of late nineteenth-century biochemists as those views are described in the passage?

Pre-thinking:
refer to P2 and especially to "arguing that the chemical reactions that occur in cytological preparations might create the appearance of such structures" and to "Their interest lay in the core “fundamental” issues of the chemical nature of protoplasm, especially the newly formulated enzyme theory of life."


(A) The secret of cell function resides in the structure of the cell.
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(B) Only by discovering the chemical composition of protoplasm can the processes of the cell be understood.
Seems in line with the second portion mentioned in pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) Scientific knowledge about the chemical composition of the cell can help to explain behavioral patterns in organisms.
Behavioral pattern are out of our concern . Hence incorrect

(D) The most important issue to be resolved with regard to the cell is determining the physical characteristics of protoplasm.
This was the concern of Cytologists. Hence incorrect

(E) The methods of chemistry must be supplemented before a full account of the cell’s structures can be made.
Completely out of scope. Hence incorrect.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Refer to the paragraphs' summaries and to main point above.


(A) An account of a process is given, and then the reason for its occurrence is stated.
A principle is presented, not a process. Plus no reason but examples. Hence incorrect

(B) A set of examples is provided and then a conclusion is drawn from them.
Just one example is given. Hence incorrect

(C) A general proposition is stated, and then an example is given.
Yes. The general proposition is the scientific principle, which is explained through an example. Hence correct

(D) A statement of principles is made, and then a rationale for them is debated.
No rationale is debated. Hence incorrect

(E) A problem is analyzed, and then a possible solution is discussed.
No problem analyzed and hence no solution needed. Hence incorrect

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Re: One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2019, 07:17
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One scientific discipline, during its early stages of development, is

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