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Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas

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Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:00
4
11
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A
B
C
D
E

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Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.

 

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Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Jul 2019, 09:12
Quote:
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.


Argument has a conclusion "Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales"
Argument explains divided views on the evolution- one is a 'conventional view' and another is a 'culture-based biological evolution'
2nd opposes
A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.- Argument establishes a conclusion and explains divided views on the evolution and not the conclusion. Hence there is no support or challenge for the conclusion
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose. - same as A
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose. - same as A
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. - 1st is a premise used to support a position 'However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution' which is objected by another position 'The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution'. But 2nd is not that position.2nd is used to support the objection of another position. So Incorrect
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.- 1st is an evidence used to support a position 'However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution' which is objected by another position 'The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution'. And 2nd is used to support objection inorder to reduce the force of 1st. Hence CORRECT.

Hence E
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Originally posted by kitipriyanka on 25 Jul 2019, 08:13.
Last edited by kitipriyanka on 25 Jul 2019, 09:12, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:17
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

This is a nice question. The conclusion of the argument is However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution.
This conclusion comes in to oppose the conventional biologists who have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution

To support this we have
No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

Let's get to the POE:-

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
This is incorrect as discussed in the prethinking.

B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
This is correct as discussed in the prethinking.

C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
This is incorrect as discussed in the prethinking.

D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is incorrect as discussed in the prethinking.

E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
This is incorrect as discussed in the prethinking.


IMO B.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:23
IMO : C

Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:35
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.

Position argument wishes to counter: The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution.
Counter position to above position that argument seeks to establish: owever, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution.
Evidence given to counter: No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago.
Evidence given to counter the counter: The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

Last two points are bold face statements. Hence only option E explains the boldface correctly.
Answer = E
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:41
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.

IMO A
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:46
IMO D is the correct answer.
But I am not sure.
Not an easy ques.
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Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Aug 2019, 05:25
1
Let's see what the argument wants to present-

Consider there is an ancestor creature called "X". And there is another creature called "O" (Orcas).
"X" has evolved to "O" and few other creatures.

Conventional biologists: The evolution of "X" to "O" is completely genetical.

Recent Research: The evolution of "X" to "O" is based on Culture + Genetic (culture-based biological evolution). The author favors this.

BF1:
All Biologists: There are distinct creatures "O", "P", "Q", "R" and "S" that display different behaviors. All these creatures share a single ancestor called "X" as recently as 200,000 years ago.

BF2: Humans have culture-based evolution.
All humans had a common ancestor, but our behaviour is different. Our culture influences our behaviour (Good/Bad/etc).

The position that the argument seeks to establish:
Evolution of both orcas and humans are culture-based biological evolution. So Conventional biologists are wrong.

Going via options:

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
They favor the position, not challenge.

B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
Argument and the BFs are on the same side. They do not oppose others.

C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
This is true. BF1, BF2 and the argument are against the position of Conventional biologists.

D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
BF1 and BF2 are not against each other.

E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
BF1 and BF2 are not against each other.

Answer C

Originally posted by Sayon on 25 Jul 2019, 08:48.
Last edited by Sayon on 19 Aug 2019, 05:25, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:49
IMO answer is E:

The argument is arranged in the following way:
conclusion - premise - premise - counter premise - premise

the bolded two statements seems to go in opposite direction, author wants us to believe "Opinions have been divided"
bold statement 1: No biologist disputes that... so this goes against conclusion
bold statement 2: The apologists ..(argument starters) so goes in line of conclusion


Only E explains the correct roles


Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 08:51
E IMO.

Below are my reasons to eliminate each option.

Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

I think the main conclusion of the argument is "However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution". Author supports the view of apologists who support culture-based biological evolution. So, second boldface is evidence used to support the main conclusion, and first bold face is an evidence used to support the view opposed by the argument.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
No, second bold face supports the argument

B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
Same as above. 2nd supports the argument

C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
Same as above.

D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
Second is not the position or main conclusion of the argument, it is just a premised that support the main conclusion.

E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
Correct by POE and matches with pre-thinking as discussed above.
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Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Jul 2019, 20:31
Premises:

-Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales
-Reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution

Counter Premises:

The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution

Main Conclusion:


The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence

So, the first boldface is evidence to support the main conclusion, and the second boldface is part of the conclusion, which is the main position that the argument seeks to establish.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish. - incorrect, first part supports and the second one is the main point per prior analysis
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.- incorrect, first part supports and the second one is the main point per prior analysis
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose. - incorrect, first part supports and the second one is the main point per prior analysis
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. -Bingo!
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence. -incorrect, first part supports and the second one is the main point per prior analysis

So (D) is our answer.

Originally posted by Mizar18 on 25 Jul 2019, 09:09.
Last edited by Mizar18 on 25 Jul 2019, 20:31, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 09:15
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Quote:
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.


Argument: that orcas' evolution was a culture-based biological evolution rather than a genetic evolution.
Bold [1] and [2] are each used to support the argument.

(A) "[1] and [2] used to challenge the argument" actually, the evidence is used to support the argument.
(B) "[1] and [2] used to support the proponents of genetic evolution" the evidence is used to support the argument.
(D) "[1] used as basis for objection to argument; [2] is that position" [1] and [2] are used to sup the argument.
(E) "[1] used as basis for objection to the position the argument seeks to oppose; [2] consideration to counter [1]" [1] and [2] are used to sup the argument, they are not against each other.

Answer (C).
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 09:38
IMO the correct answer is B

Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish - Both the boldface statements are evidence sets but these are not used to challenge the position, in fact they have been used to support the claim - Discard
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose - This is correct, both these evidences are introduced to support the position & the argument as a whole seeks to oppose that only genetic explanation is sufficient to answer the evolution - Correct
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose - Both the boldface statements are evidence sets but these are not used to challenge the position, in fact they have been used to support the claim - Discard
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position - the first is a premise not to object the second boldface statement (if it should have been the position, which is not true) - In fact both of these are evidence set - Discard
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence - again these boldface statements are evidence set, one is not used to counter the other - Discard
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 09:50
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Author says that opinions have long been divided .
sentence 2 - convention biologist says their view
sentence 3 - reliable research suggest that , they add points but do not contradict it
BOLD 1 : a general fact agreed by both parties
BOLD 2 : conventional biologist add point that again agree with research - sentence 3

Author says that there is a contract - but there is no contract all agree / support
so BOLD 1 BOLD 2 reject author saying there is not contradiction

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.

B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.- Incorrect
argument is not opposing anything author only stated facts and his opinion

C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.-Incorrect
again argument is not opposing anything , and Bold 2 is not a evidence

D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.-Incorrect
argument doesn't seek to establish the BOLD 2 . Bold 2 is the objection for authors conclusion

E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence-Incorrect
BOLD2 is not counter to BOLD 1
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 09:58
Quote:
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?


A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish. - The first and second boldface portions do not challenge the position of the argument. It is more of a support rather than challenge. Incorrect
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose. - Again, these both boldface portions do not support or oppose any of the argument's positions. In fact, argument opposes that the evolution was made by genetics. However, the boldface portions do not support it. Incorrect
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose. - Neither of the evidences is used to challenge positions that were opposed by the argument. Incorrect
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. - The first boldface portion is not a premise. Incorrect
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence. - The role of both boldface portions is identified here correctly. Correct

Answer: E
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 10:12
2
A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish. (INCORRECT - The evidence provided did not challenge the position the argument seeks to establish instead it supports)

B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose. (INCORRECT - The evidence provided did not support the position the argument was trying to oppose, is like saying the opposite of what the evidence did)

C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose. (CORRECT - The evidences provided were used to challenge the position the argument was trying to oppose)

D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. (INCORRECT - The first bold part did not object the position the argument seeks to establish rather it supports it)

E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence. (INCORRECT - This makes the similar mistake to answer choice D. In addition, the second bold part did not counter the force of the evidence provided in the first bold part but it rather supports it)

Hence answer choice C.
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 10:17
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish. ---- the first and the second is not challenge the position that the author seeks to establish, but rather they go in the opposite directions
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose. ----no, both do not support the position that the author seeks to oppose but vise versa. They support the author's position
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose. --- no, the first portion says that "No biologist disputes that.." and it does not challenge the position of convention biologists
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. --- the first is not really an objection to the author's position
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence. ----yes! the author first tells us convention theory and then the second portion contradicts it by giving a new consideration of the new study, that the author told us about earlier

The answer is E
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 10:44
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1
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
Analysis:
BF1: whales share a single ancestor before branching off --> so the evolution is likely to be cultural base biological evolution
BF2: humans have culture-based biological evolution --> so the evolution is likely to be cultural base biological evolution in whales
Conclusion: the evolution is likely to be cultural base biological evolution
The conventional biologists: genetic explanation is the evolution
BF1 & BF2 supports the conclusion, but challenges the conventional biologists option

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish. --> both challenge the position that argument seeks to oppose
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose. --> both support the position that argument seeks to establish
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose. --> correct
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. --> BF2 is not the position
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence. --> both support the position that argument seeks to establish
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 10:44
2
Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas, the killer whales. The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution. However, reliable recent research suggests that underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution. No biologist disputes that before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. The apologists of the conventional explanation shall confer that humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

First boldface: before branching off into five distinct groups displaying different behaviors, the creatures shared a single ancestor as recently as 200,000 years ago. It is a premise/evidence.
Second boldface: humans have culture-based biological evolution to thank for their existence.

It is evident that both first and second boldface are FOR culture/behavior based evolution.
Conclusion/position: underneath the genetic distinction lies culture-based biological evolution.
Position/Conclusion challenged: The conventional biologists have long extended a genetic explanation to their evolution.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
First and second boldface are supporting the position that the argument seeks to establish. Incorrect
B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
First and second boldface are supporting the position that the argument seeks to establish. Incorrect
C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
The argument seeks to oppose genetic explanation of evolution and the first and second boldface describe evident that has been used to challenge the position the argument seeks to oppose. Correct
D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
The first and second boldface are FOR culture-based evolution and don't object to each other. Incorrect
E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
The first and second boldface are FOR culture-based evolution and don't COUNTER each other. Incorrect

IMO C
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 10:49
A. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
The first and the second are not in the same direction, The first strengthens the position argument seeks to establish

B. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to support the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
The argument seeks to oppose the position by stating the first Boldface

C. The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to oppose.
THe first truly challenges the position argument seeks to oppose, but the second in contrast, opposes what argument seeks to establish

D. The first is a premise that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
The first does not seek to oppose what argument seeks to establish, the second is not the position argument seeks to establish, it's just a consideration of the apologists of convertional explanation

E. The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to oppose; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
The first is the objection of the convertionalists position, the second tries to counter the first

IMO
Ans: E
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Re: Opinions have long been divided upon the evolution of Orcas   [#permalink] 25 Jul 2019, 10:49

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