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# Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful

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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2008, 11:25
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Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

a) has long appeared that it was immune from

b) has long appeared to have been immune from

c) has long appeared as being immune to

d) had long appeared immune to

e) had long appeared that it was immune to

First of all, do "immune from" and immune to" exist in English or is it just one of them?

Thanks!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mau5 on 03 Dec 2013, 00:19, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the Q

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2008, 12:02
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tarek99 wrote:
Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

a) has long appeared that it was immune from

b) has long appeared to have been immune from

c) has long appeared as being immune to

d) had long appeared immune to

e) had long appeared that it was immune to

First of all, do "immune from" and immune to" exist in English or is it just one of them?

Thanks!

D for me

I hear "appears that" all the time but im not sure that is correct

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2008, 12:19
tarek99 wrote:
Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

a) has long appeared that it was immune from

b) has long appeared to have been immune from

c) has long appeared as being immune to

d) had long appeared immune to

e) had long appeared that it was immune to

First of all, do "immune from" and immune to" exist in English or is it just one of them?

Thanks!

Immune from is wrong. immunity to a disease/condition is correct. Takes out A & B. C out for being. D & E, D is concise and clear.

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2008, 15:12
OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

Thanks

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2008, 17:17
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D for me....appeared to is right than appear that

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2008, 17:36
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tarek99 wrote:
OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

Thanks

Went with B for exactly the same reason. Would appreciate any input on the subject.

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2008, 04:10
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snaps wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

Thanks

Went with B for exactly the same reason. Would appreciate any input on the subject.

I think I have figured it out. First of all, the second independent clause after the semicolon starts with "we have now realized." We have to realize that "have realized" is a present perfect, meaning that an action started in the past and that this action is still occurring today. So this action started in the past, and the clause before it refers to an event that occured before the last independent clause. I think this should make sense. What do you think?

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2008, 16:12
tarek99 wrote:
Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

a) has long appeared that it was immune from

b) has long appeared to have been immune from

c) has long appeared as being immune to

d) had long appeared immune to

e) had long appeared that it was immune to

First of all, do "immune from" and immune to" exist in English or is it just one of them?

Thanks!

Okie thats lot of crap in the sentence

Ozone.... human influence

Immune to....is correct usage and hence A, B is kicked offf

Being is wordy in GMAT ( however, when you feel answer that you have obtained is not the best, go and recheck ones eliminated on the basis of being) Kick off C

E has wordy too. That doesnt have anything to modify nor demonstrate ( That is a relative pronoun used a restrictive/essential modifer and a demonstrative pronoun -often seen in comparison statement ...to that of...)

Mark D

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2008, 23:29
tarek99 wrote:
snaps wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

Thanks

Went with B for exactly the same reason. Would appreciate any input on the subject.

I think I have figured it out. First of all, the second independent clause after the semicolon starts with "we have now realized." We have to realize that "have realized" is a present perfect, meaning that an action started in the past and that this action is still occurring today. So this action started in the past, and the clause before it refers to an event that occured before the last independent clause. I think this should make sense. What do you think?

Tarek your explanation is logical and makes sense. i'll run it by my tutor and let you know what he says.

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2008, 14:58
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And what I say is -- Snaps and Tarek, you are both correct.

Whenever I and others say that the perfect tense describes an action that happened in the past and "continues up to the present", we are actually oversimplifying somewhat. The perfect tense usually means this, but it can also mean that the action occurred in the past and CREATED A CONDITION which continues to the present AND is relevant. That is what the perfect means in this case: We realized in the past that emissions deplete the ozone layer -- we are NOT still in the process of realizing -- but now we are in a state of KNOWING this, and it matters.

So the event of realizing is a past event. The appearance that the ozone layer was immune to human interference existed BEFORE that past event. For events or conditions that happened before another past event, we use the pluperfect, "had appeared". This reduces the choice to D and E, and E is unnecessarily wordy.
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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2008, 15:45
grumpyoldman wrote:
And what I say is -- Snaps and Tarek, you are both correct.

Whenever I and others say that the perfect tense describes an action that happened in the past and "continues up to the present", we are actually oversimplifying somewhat. The perfect tense usually means this, but it can also mean that the action occurred in the past and CREATED A CONDITION which continues to the present AND is relevant. That is what the perfect means in this case: We realized in the past that emissions deplete the ozone layer -- we are NOT still in the process of realizing -- but now we are in a state of KNOWING this, and it matters.

So the event of realizing is a past event. The appearance that the ozone layer was immune to human interference existed BEFORE that past event. For events or conditions that happened before another past event, we use the pluperfect, "had appeared". This reduces the choice to D and E, and E is unnecessarily wordy.

Thanks Grump for the great explanation!

Tarek -- you are correct.

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2009, 04:36
well I agree
I can add this,
When the subjects of two clauses are not the same then it requires "appear that"
Ex: It appears that she doesn't love me.

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 13:04
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Come on guys check the Oxford Dictionary for idiom usage:

immune /{speaker}Imju:n/ adjective [notusuallybeforenoun]
1 ~ (to sth) that cannot catch or be affected by a particular disease or illness:
Adults are often immune to German measles.
2 ~ (to sth) not affected by sth:
You'll eventually become immune to criticism. * Few men are immune to her charms. * Our business is far from immune to economic conditions.
3 ~ (from sth) protected from sth and therefore able to avoid it
SYNEXEMPT: No one should be immune from prosecution.
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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 13:14
iamcste wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays, reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.

a) has long appeared that it was immune from

b) has long appeared to have been immune from

c) has long appeared as being immune to

d) had long appeared immune to

e) had long appeared that it was immune to

First of all, do "immune from" and immune to" exist in English or is it just one of them?

Thanks!

Okie thats lot of crap in the sentence

Ozone.... human influence

Immune to....is correct usage and hence A, B is kicked offf

Being is wordy in GMAT ( however, when you feel answer that you have obtained is not the best, go and recheck ones eliminated on the basis of being) Kick off C

E has wordy too. That doesnt have anything to modify nor demonstrate ( That is a relative pronoun used a restrictive/essential modifer and a demonstrative pronoun -often seen in comparison statement ...to that of...)

Mark D

as a previous post indicates, immune to and immune from are both widely used in english and is accepted by the oxford dictionary. . hence a and B not kicked out.

i would go with B

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 00:06
immune from means "Exempt from", does not make sense in option B.

Choice 'D' as mentioned in the earlier posts talks about an earlier event, so HAD should be used.
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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 01:11
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IMO, - immune from - is as acceptable as - immune to.-

E. g: Having suffered typhoid a couple of times, Tom is now immune to that disease.

You are immune from contracting sexually transmitted diseases, when you employ safe sex practices (meaning that you are protected from the ill effects of something, when you are immune from them.)

So what decides the use of - to or from - is the context. I would in the given context choose -immune from - rather than - immune to -because the meaning implies that ozone is far placed and hence protected from human influence.

What however baffles me is how we can afford a past perfect here, when the thumb rules state that

1. A past perfect can not remain alone without a simple past.

2. By custom, a past perfect can not be joined with a present tense or a present perfect, without a past tense intervening.

I can not digest choice D and E, unless somebody makes bold to say that the use of past perfect here is an exception under some blah, blah rule.

B on the other hand uses the present perfect tenses for all descriptions - has long appeared to - and -have been immune from - and it goes parallel with the present perfect in non-underlined part - we have now realized -

B for me therefore on my own reckoning.
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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 02:16
I think answer is D.
first of all, I eliminated A,B and C because of present perfect, indeed they should be past perfect
and then E looked wordy to me.

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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2011, 10:22
tarek99 wrote:
snaps wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
OA is D.

I chose B for this problem because even though I agree that "immune from" is wrong, I had a bigger problem with "had appeared." We don't have 2 verbs that occurred in the past. We only have 1 verb, so I felt that there was no reason to have a past perfect. Would anyone comment on that point?

Thanks

Went with B for exactly the same reason. Would appreciate any input on the subject.

I think I have figured it out. First of all, the second independent clause after the semicolon starts with "we have now realized." We have to realize that "have realized" is a present perfect, meaning that an action started in the past and that this action is still occurring today. So this action started in the past, and the clause before it refers to an event that occured before the last independent clause. I think this should make sense. What do you think?

good explanation ! thanks
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Re: SC: Idiom [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 05:21
daagh wrote:
IMO, - immune from - is as acceptable as - immune to.-

E. g: Having suffered typhoid a couple of times, Tom is now immune to that disease.

You are immune from contracting sexually transmitted diseases, when you employ safe sex practices (meaning that you are protected from the ill effects of something, when you are immune from them.)

So what decides the use of - to or from - is the context. I would in the given context choose -immune from - rather than - immune to -because the meaning implies that ozone is far placed and hence protected from human influence.

What however baffles me is how we can afford a past perfect here, when the thumb rules state that

1. A past perfect can not remain alone without a simple past.

2. By custom, a past perfect can not be joined with a present tense or a present perfect, without a past tense intervening.

I can not digest choice D and E, unless somebody makes bold to say that the use of past perfect here is an exception under some blah, blah rule.

B on the other hand uses the present perfect tenses for all descriptions - has long appeared to - and -have been immune from - and it goes parallel with the present perfect in non-underlined part - we have now realized -

B for me therefore on my own reckoning.

you are right daagh. the issue stands unresolved. Even people at Manhattan haven't been able to clarify it. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ozo ... -t638.html

Its sad to see a GMAT prep question with such ambiguities. Idiom or not D doesn't make sense at all. Use of past perfect cant be justified.

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 22:43
Very good question. ACE were awkward. I then had to use the "immune to" idiom to pick D over B. I did not understand how to split the answers using the tenses. Can someone explain how the past perfect is used correctly here?

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Re: Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful   [#permalink] 06 Jan 2014, 22:43

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# Ozone, a special form of oxygen that screens out harmful

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