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Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it

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Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2011, 12:58
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A
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44% (01:10) correct 56% (00:58) wrong based on 230 sessions

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Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.


(A) has long appeared that it was immune from

(B) has long appeared to have been immune from

(C) has long appeared as being immune to

(D) had long appeared immune to

(E) had long appeared that it was immune to
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2011, 00:02
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'had long appeared' -- longer applied
immune to -- correct usage.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2012, 16:00
I though the correct sentence should have started with has, but they have the wrong idiom usage, is my explanation correct:

A) has long appeared that it was [b]immune from [/b]
B) has long appeared to have been immune from
C) has long appeared as being immune to (Correct idiom, but uses being)
D) had long appeared immune to (Correct idiom)
E) had long appeared that it was immune to (Correct Idiom, to long, and unnecessary use of it)
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2017, 01:38
IMO D is correct here, since it was previously assumed that Ozone is immune at that level. But later it has been known that CFC from industrial emissions can deplete Ozone at that level, so we are in the past of past hence use "had", also immune to is the correct idiom.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 08:33
Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it has long appeared that it was immune from human influence; we have now realized, though, that emissions of industrial chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer.
A) has long appeared that it was immune from
B) has long appeared to have been immune from
C) has long appeared as being immune to (Correct idiom)
D) had long appeared immune to
E) had long appeared that it was immune to


Immune to is the idiom. A,B out.
Being : C out.
E is verbose
So D is correct.
But use of had appeared, is this right ? Can't see any two events in past ?
IMO: where it long appeared immune to is better

Hi, GMATNinjaTwo,
Plz help.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 09:25
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I'd *heavily* recommend treating this as a Tense/Timeline problem and not an idiom problem. If 100 people see this thread, I'd bet that fewer than 2 ever see "immune to vs. immune from" on an official GMAT, but I'd say 80+ of you will have a decision similar to the verb tense issue here.

Note that after the semicolon you have "we have now realized, though, that..." This means that 1) something has changed (there's a transition here), so 2) the verb tense for what was once thought to be true shouldn't be the same as the verb tense for what has changed. That present perfect "has long appeared" suggests that that appearance is still going on...but immediately past the semicolon we get evidence that that appearance of immunity is over, so we need a verb tense for "long appeared" that shows that the action is over. Only (D) and (E) do that.

Why I'm pretty adamant about seeing this as a tense problem is that it's repeatable...everyone will see verb tense tested on the official GMAT, so the more you've trained yourself to look for signals of timeline (e.g. "hey there's clear evidence that we no longer think this way, so we have to show that "has appeared" is over") the more you're preparing for whichever Tense/Timeline problems the GMAT happens to throw at you that day. Verb tense decision-making is repeatable, whereas if you walk away from this one thinking "immune to > immune from" that's not bad knowledge to have in general, but there's just such a limited probability that you'll get to use it on test day.

And then BARUAH "we have now realized" does put that act of realizing in the past and suggest that anything that happened prior to that realization is further in the past, justifying the past perfect there. Like you I'd probably prefer "it long appeared immune" but since they didn't give us that choice we have to make the best of what we've got and at least "had appeared" clearly puts that appearance in the past before "we have now realized."
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 09:37
VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
I'd *heavily* recommend treating this as a Tense/Timeline problem and not an idiom problem. If 100 people see this thread, I'd bet that fewer than 2 ever see "immune to vs. immune from" on an official GMAT, but I'd say 80+ of you will have a decision similar to the verb tense issue here.

Note that after the semicolon you have "we have now realized, though, that..." This means that 1) something has changed (there's a transition here), so 2) the verb tense for what was once thought to be true shouldn't be the same as the verb tense for what has changed. That present perfect "has long appeared" suggests that that appearance is still going on...but immediately past the semicolon we get evidence that that appearance of immunity is over, so we need a verb tense for "long appeared" that shows that the action is over. Only (D) and (E) do that.

Why I'm pretty adamant about seeing this as a tense problem is that it's repeatable...everyone will see verb tense tested on the official GMAT, so the more you've trained yourself to look for signals of timeline (e.g. "hey there's clear evidence that we no longer think this way, so we have to show that "has appeared" is over") the more you're preparing for whichever Tense/Timeline problems the GMAT happens to throw at you that day. Verb tense decision-making is repeatable, whereas if you walk away from this one thinking "immune to > immune from" that's not bad knowledge to have in general, but there's just such a limited probability that you'll get to use it on test day.

And then BARUAH "we have now realized" does put that act of realizing in the past and suggest that anything that happened prior to that realization is further in the past, justifying the past perfect there. Like you I'd probably prefer "it long appeared immune" but since they didn't give us that choice we have to make the best of what we've got and at least "had appeared" clearly puts that appearance in the past before "we have now realized."


Thanks Brian. I understand that it is better to treat this kind of problems as Timeline/Tense problems.
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 13:23
VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
I'd *heavily* recommend treating this as a Tense/Timeline problem and not an idiom problem. If 100 people see this thread, I'd bet that fewer than 2 ever see "immune to vs. immune from" on an official GMAT, but I'd say 80+ of you will have a decision similar to the verb tense issue here.

Note that after the semicolon you have "we have now realized, though, that..." This means that 1) something has changed (there's a transition here), so 2) the verb tense for what was once thought to be true shouldn't be the same as the verb tense for what has changed. That present perfect "has long appeared" suggests that that appearance is still going on...but immediately past the semicolon we get evidence that that appearance of immunity is over, so we need a verb tense for "long appeared" that shows that the action is over. Only (D) and (E) do that.

Why I'm pretty adamant about seeing this as a tense problem is that it's repeatable...everyone will see verb tense tested on the official GMAT, so the more you've trained yourself to look for signals of timeline (e.g. "hey there's clear evidence that we no longer think this way, so we have to show that "has appeared" is over") the more you're preparing for whichever Tense/Timeline problems the GMAT happens to throw at you that day. Verb tense decision-making is repeatable, whereas if you walk away from this one thinking "immune to > immune from" that's not bad knowledge to have in general, but there's just such a limited probability that you'll get to use it on test day.

And then BARUAH "we have now realized" does put that act of realizing in the past and suggest that anything that happened prior to that realization is further in the past, justifying the past perfect there. Like you I'd probably prefer "it long appeared immune" but since they didn't give us that choice we have to make the best of what we've got and at least "had appeared" clearly puts that appearance in the past before "we have now realized."


This was very insightful.

Your recommendation to see this kind of problem as a timeline one is very much valid. I didnt even take particular notice of the immune idiom usage, like you guessed. I definitely will take this to heart
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Re: Ozone reaches high concentrations twelve miles above Earth, where it &nbs [#permalink] 22 Oct 2018, 13:23
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