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# Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed

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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
rpfinley
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.

(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
at isn't the right usage therefore out

(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
being is a huge red flag as always in addition provides isn't the right usage therefore out

(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
THe right idom is to be therefore out

(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
The idiom is perfect therefore our answer

(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
as isn't the right idiom therefore out

THerefore IMO D
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
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BLTN
GMATNinja
Dear Charles,
could you elaborate, are the following sentences correct?

- Company was estimated at \$3 million
- The power of hydroelectric station is estimated at 13 MW

If no, why the official GMAT question utilized this construction in the Non-underlined portion of the sentence?

- With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water though to be frozen from top to bottom

The value of a company could be estimated at \$3 million, but the company itself? Nah.

For the second sentence, something like "the energy expenditure" or "usage" might make a little more sense than "power," but I wouldn't say it's fundamentally wrong.

Two practical points to keep in mind: 1) don't waste energy evaluating the non-underlined portion of sentences! You can't change them. And there are too many possible constructions to try to internalize what's acceptable and what isn't.

2) Just ask yourself whether what you're reading, if interpreted literally, is logical. If it's illogical, eliminate the answer. If it's logical, or if you're just not sure, hang on to it, and look for other issues. That's it. No memorization or agonizing required.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
“Estimated to be” is correct and is preferred over “estimated at”

arpanpatnaik
zazoz
Hi guys! just a refresher, enjoy!

Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.

(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

OA: D

I guess the trick is to understand the difference between 'estimated at' and 'estimated to be'. Since at is a preposition, it should be followed by a noun, whereas 40 to 40 million years old is not. Hence the structure is inaccurate. Furthermore 'estimated to be' is the proper idiomatic usage which includes the infinitive to make sure a valid range can be described.

Good one zazoz!

Regards,
A
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
Question sentence - > "Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings."

My Query - >
I may be wrong here, but isn't this sentence a fragment(without a working verb).
Please correct me if I am incorrect, but according to my understanding "fragments of a primate jawbone" is the subject( thing about which the statement is made ) of the sentence.
AND
In the question there is no working verb expressing an action, an occurrence, or a state of being of the subject. But in the correct choice "to be" is the working verb.

Can you please confirm if my understanding is correct? If not, can you please explain how am I incorrect.
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
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gmdsat

No, the sentence core of A is the same as that of D: Paleontologists believe that fragments provide evidence. The "estimated" portion is a modifier, and so nothing in there is working as a verb for the main subject. Also, "to be" can never be the main verb of a sentence. It must be conjugated!

The only difference at this point is one of idiom: we say "estimated to be" a certain age, not "estimated at."
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
1
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gmdsat
Question sentence - > "Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings."

My Query - >
I may be wrong here, but isn't this sentence a fragment(without a working verb).
Please correct me if I am incorrect, but according to my understanding "fragments of a primate jawbone" is the subject( thing about which the statement is made ) of the sentence.
AND
In the question there is no working verb expressing an action, an occurrence, or a state of being of the subject. But in the correct choice "to be" is the working verb.

Can you please confirm if my understanding is correct? If not, can you please explain how am I incorrect.

Hello gmdsat,

We hope this finds you well.

To clarify, in Option A the verb "provide" is the active verb that acts upon the subject noun "fragments".

The same is true in Option D - the correct answer choice - and, in fact, "unearthed" and "estimated to be" are both past participles acting as modifiers.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed [#permalink]
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