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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r

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New post 13 Nov 2019, 09:40
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Project SC Butler: Day 191: Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant

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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2019, 09:41
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 191: Sentence Correction (SC1)



• HIGHLIGHTS

Try to understand the general meaning of the sentence.

Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.

Meaning?

Remove the nonessential modifier and this sentence gets a lot easier:
Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations . . . still rely heavily on these commodities [natural resources].

The word "still" is in every option. "Still" indicates contrast.
→ Nations still rely heavily on these commodities/natural resources.
Implication: nations should not still be relying on these commodities.

Now look again at the part we removed to locate the contrast.
. . . nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still . . .
In recent years, "nations" were connected to the idea of "having outgrown their roots in natural resources."

We have contrast.
Plunging prices reveal an important fact about nations.
On one hand, in recent years, nations were hailed [applauded, complimented, praised] for having outgrown their reliance on natural resources.
At the very least, we understand that nations were identified as having outgrown their [economic reliance on] natural resources.)

On the other hand, nations still rely heavily on these resources [these commodities].

Take a guess at the meaning of hailed from the context.
Hailed means praised or characterized as.
Even if you do not quite understand hailed, you do know that "nations" and "outgrowing their roots in natural resources" are connected.
Nations did not themselves say that they were "outgrowing" their reliance on natural resources.
So hailed falls somewhere in the range of "described" and "thought of," and it is positive.

You may know that hailed idiomatically takes AS, in which case you can eliminate (B) and (D).
Do not memorize that idiom. I've seen it used in only two official questions. One of them is the Holland Tunnel question.

As posters have noted, we should begin by looking for undeniable errors.

• Find the glaring errors

THE PROMPT
Quote:
Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


In the "find glaring errors first" approach, which I always use anyway, we take the options out of order.
When the meaning of a sentence is hard to grasp, we should try to eliminate 1-3 options that contain glaring errors.
Elimination builds confidence. Confidence keeps your mind calm.

Read each option but not too carefully. You're looking for glaring errors that jump out at you.

Reading quickly through options A and B probably does not yield any glaring error. And then comes option C.

THE OPTIONS

Quote:
C) Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.

• no matter what that word hailed means, nations cannot be "outgrowths of their roots in natural resources."
-- a nation is not an "outgrowth"—an offshoot or byproduct—of natural resources or of a nation's [economic] roots in natural resources
-- the other four options use some form of the verb "to outgrow." This noun, outgrowth, is nonsensical.
• C is illogical. Nations would not be hailed as AN outgrowth of their roots in natural resources.
Rather, they are hailed for having outgrown their natural resources. This meaning sets up the contrast with the fact that in reality, nations still rely heavily on those resources.
Eliminate C

Option D does not yield anything glaring.
Don't get stuck. The verb phrase "are still relying heavily" may seem very tempting because it seems parallel to "are revealing."
We are not looking for a correct answer. We are looking for glaring errors.

Option E gives us a glaring error.

Quote:
E) Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant on these commodities.

• The Case of the Missing Verb.
-- The subject nations lacks a working verb.
-- From above we know that nations is a subject connected to some form of the verb "to rely."
-- still heavily reliant is not a verb. (The phrase is an adjective.) The subject nations lacks a verb.
Try removing the nonessential phrase if you're not sure:
Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations . . . still heavily reliant on these commodities. No verb.
Eliminate E

• Remaining options?

Compare them directly. Line them up.

Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years ____________ on these commodities.

A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

Test the first part:
A) . . . nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown XYZ
B) . . . nations, hailed in recent years to have outgrown XYZ
D) . . . nations, hailed in recent years to outgrow their XYZ

The least logical of the three is (D).
At this point we should see that hailed means something similar to regarded, described, characterized, or praised.
Our sentence is about contrast, but without outgrown (as in, should have happened) as is the case in (D), we are left without the solid contrast:
Although nations should have outgrown their reliance on natural resources, nations still rely heavily on those resources.
Eliminate D

• Option A or B? Compare everything.

A) Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.
B) Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant on these commodities.

Five years ago, just about every use of having was wrong.
At present, although having is not frequently correct, it is not always wrong.
GMAC caught onto the " avoid having" shortcut.
More importantly, at times, the word "having" in English is better than any other word.

I think that one of those times is apparent in option (A), but I also think that the difference is much too subtle and not something you need to understand.
Take this next part on faith, but please, do not try to extract a rule or guideline from it.

When having is paired with a past participle (a verbED), it suggests a past condition (among other things).
The phrase hailed as having outgrown resembles described as having outgrown or characterized as having outgrown.
The phrases all place this fact firmly in the past. (The fact is the belief.)
It was believed that nations had outgrown their reliance on natural resources.

In (B), the phrase hailed to have outgrown also places that belief in the past.
I do not think that the phrasing is as effective, but my explanation would bore you all to tears.
More importantly, you do not need to understand that level of subtlety.

We can, however, compare B to A a simple way. We can test the synonyms of hailed.
Do the synonyms both convey the "in the past" meaning and seem idiomatic?
described to have outgrown :x
characterized to have outgrown :x

Those two phrases should sound incredibly weird to you.
At the very least you should think "not great."
(To be blunt: the phrases are wrong. We need hailed AS, described AS, and characterized AS. But we're trying to avoid idiom overload.)

Okay. Let's assume that you still can't decide.
(It would also be safe to assume that the words "never choose an option with having" are giving people a headache.)

• VERBS
A) Nations . . . still rely heavily[/i] on these commodities.
B) Nations . . . are still relying heavily on[/i] these commodities

This one is not a close call. Option A wins.
There is no need to maintain parallelism with "plunging prices are revealing."
"Are revealing" suggests that the event in in the process of happening.

By contrast, we do not need to convey a sense of unfolding or progress.
The fact that nations still rely on natural resources is not a good thing.
Say so. Use the stronger verb construction.
In option B, "are still relying on" is in passive voice. Passive voice is not necessary. Too many words!
In option A, "still rely" is in active voice.

Choose option (A) because its stronger verb in active voice creates stronger contrast.
Choose option A because it says the same thing as B says but A uses fewer words.
Concision is a decision point at the end of analysis.
(If options differ, concision is always a decision point. I would wait until the end to eliminate an option on the basis of concision. Other errors are easier to call.)

Eliminate B.

The best answer is A.

COMMENTS

soulcycle and gmatdordie , welcome to SC Butler. :)

I tried to avoid reference to the idiomatic usage of "hailed as" because this question can be decided without resort to the idiom.

I think I erased as many lines as I wrote. :upsidedown

My hat is off to everyone who posted.
No kidding.
I want you to take risks.

I want you to get used to being wrong once in a while.
You will get questions wrong on the test.

Confidence is partly a result of resilience. (Confidence is also faking it till you make it.)
You teach yourself resilience when you get on a forum, post an answer, and are not sure whether you are correct.
You teach yourself resilience when you do not care about what others think.
You teach yourself resilience when you force yourself to explain, in the best way you can, whatever it is that you have learned.

Everyone, nicely done.
Your posts are well-reasoned even if you took a wrong turn. I read them all.
Latecomers, your well-written posts earn you kudos, too.

And especially to Doer01 , soulcycle , and suchithra , who all reasoned to the correct option: very nicely done!
Kudos to all.

EDIT: (1) For those of you who get email notifications with the whole post, I just edited (B)'s last part (no change in analysis) and
(2) I wanted to ask (of anyone, not just people who posted): if you avoided (A), did you do so because "having" is rarely correct?
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Re: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2019, 11:05
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 191: Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant


Hi,
IMO A.
Honestly, I have never been comfortable with sentences using such structure as "to have, having" etc.

I'd try to rule incorrect options out using something else.
1. Heavily is an adverb, so it can only modify a verb. This takes care of B & E where it is modifying reliant, a noun.
2. Nations hailed as an outgrowth?? does not make sense. C is Out.
3. The ongoing action has already been shown in the opening clause, Plunging prices are revealing the extent, what follows is an established fact. So use of present continuous are still relying heavily does not make a whole lot of sense. D is out.
We are only left with A and I hope I am correct.
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Re: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2019, 12:01
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant.

I think the sentence requires a present continuous tense as the process is ongoing. We can eliminate A, C & E. Between B & D to have is preferable to to outgrow. IMO B is correct.
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Re: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2019, 14:31
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.

"Low hanging fruits" are choices E (sentence fragment) and B (action verb "rely" is better than to+be+adjective "are reliant")

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant

Then, I find it difficult to decide among A-C-D as do not fully get meaning, so I'm guessing it is D.

A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily
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New post 13 Nov 2019, 19:46
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant[/quote]


A - "as having outgrown looks correct" - looks good

B - "to have outgrown" implies the intention on part of the nation.

C - "as an outgrowth of their roots" - A nation being an outgrowth of it's roots sounds ridiculous. Also "their" should be "its"

D - "to outgrow" implies intention

E - "as outgrowing" implies it's still happening. "their" should be "its"

Answer is A
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 00:45
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Hailed as is used when referring to someone as Y or praising them and this is the most common form I have come across, it is usually followed by a noun . In rare cases, I have seen other uses such as Hail to (Hail to the king or hail the king)

A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
Correct

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
I prefer the verb rely

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
Hailed as an outgrowth is incorrect

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant
Hailed as outgrowing in incorrect since we are missing a noun

Therefore answer is A
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New post Updated on: 15 Nov 2019, 03:53
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generis wrote:
Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.

A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily
E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant


MEANING
Plunging prices are revealing the extent that nation still heavily rely on these commodities.
Which nations? Those hailed in the past for having outgrown its dependence on nat resources.

B) "are still reliant on" < "still rely on" - active voice is better; "hailed to" unidiomatic;
C) "nations hailed as an outgrowth" nonsense;
D) "hailed [past] to outgrow their roots" unintended;
E) "the extent to which they still [adj] heavily [adj] reliant [adj]" frag;

Ans (A)

Originally posted by exc4libur on 14 Nov 2019, 07:41.
Last edited by exc4libur on 15 Nov 2019, 03:53, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 08:41
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Quote:
Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


After reading the sentence one may conclude that the following subjects are being tested: meaning, tenses, and structure. One needs to understand what is going with the meaning. The prices are revealing [something] the extent [which extent?] to which nations, [blah-blah], rely on something [commodities = resources] even these days. The modifier includes a time indicator - in recent years - that requires Present Perfect (have + Ved) tense.

A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
Let's keep it.

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
Let's keep it.

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
This option is a colossal mess in terms of meaning. Can nations be hailed [thought of] as an outgrowth? Ugh... no way. This option goes to the Trash bin.

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily
to outgrow is not wrong grammatically. Perhaps, something can be projected to outgrow the original projection. However, option (D) has a problem with meaning. The modifier speaks about recent years, so we should have a tense that correlates to what is meant. Prices indicate that something has happened in recent years. We need Present Perfect.

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant
Again, this option does not make much sense. Nations are hailed in recent years as outgrowing their roots? Ugly.

To be honest, it is hard for me to decide between (A) and (B). While [nations] still rely heavily looks more concise than [nations] are still heavily reliant, I think hailed in recent years to have outgrown their roots works better than hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots. Therefore, I go with (B).
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 09:34
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily - issue with as having , makes it unidiomatic and distorts the meaning

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
-makes sense , to have grown their roots in natural resources playing role of adverb, if you remove this line, it connects with are
C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
incorrect usage of as, illogical comparison - as can be used either when it is playing some role or comparing one entity to another, illogical meaning
D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily

D is tough one, but according to original sentence roots are already grown , so its out

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant - same reason as in C, incorrect usage of as
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.

Meaning: Prices (of natural resources) are going down. These continuous reductions in prices are revealing some information about some nations. These nations were previously believed to no longer depend on natural resources. However, these recent price reductions show that they still rely heavily on natural resources. It can be inferred that the price reductions are having a toll on the economies of these nations.

Split #1: hailed as having outgrown vs hailed to have outgrown
Both idioms are correctly used in options A and B.

Option A: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.
There is nothing obviously wrong with this option. Hence, let's keep option A.

Option B: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant on these commodities.
Grammatically correct. Hence, let's keep this option B also.

Option C: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.
The right idiom is hailed as having. Hailed as an outgrowth does not make sense. An outgrowth should rather be outgrow. Eliminate option C.

Option D: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily on these commodities.
The right idiom is hailed to have. In addition, outgrow should be outgrown. Eliminate option D.

Option E: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant on these commodities.
The right idiom is hailed as having. In addition, outgrowing should rather be outgrown. Eliminate option E.

Between options A and B, the difference is as follows:
Option A: nations still rely heavily on these commodities.
Option B: nations are still heavily reliant on these commodities.
Option A is more concise. The verb rely is more concise than are reliant.
Hence on the grounds of concision, I have chosen option A over option B.

The right answer is option A.


PS: This question reminds me of the question on salads, whereby Babylonians are known to have doused.....
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 13:21
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Quote:
Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.


A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily
E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant


I missed the OA deadline today :(

My first thought was to remove the piece in the middle and focus on the second half. But there is nothing wrong with any of those choices.
Both "still rely heavily" and "are still relying heavily" are fine. One can argue the former is concise but that is not the correct reason to eliminate any answer choice.

Quote:
B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant
D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily


It boils down to meaning here. "to have outgrown" and "to outgrow" is not the intended meaning. The nations hailed in the recent years because of having outgrown their roots in natural resources. Also try to get a feel of the tense here.

Quote:
A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily
C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily This one should have been an easy elimination because of the usage of "outgrowth of"
E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant Even though outgrowing as a tense is okay to me but meaning changes here.


A is the best we can do. May be I would not have picked A but whenever you are in doubt or cannot find any obvious errors, A is the best you can do. No this is not an Absolute rule, obviously. But one should have a feel of this.
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 14:28
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in recent years as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily on these commodities.

A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily - ...nations, hailed as having outgrown their roots.. seems odd construction even though no other error, hold it & let's check better one.

B) to have outgrown their roots in natural resources, are still heavily reliant - improper usage of adjective

C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily - Usage of outgrowth looks fishy, but let's keep it.

D) to outgrow their roots in natural resources, are still relying heavily - present continuous tense changes the meaning as the event

E) as outgrowing their roots in natural resources, still heavily reliant - Improper usage of adjective and usage of outgrowing ridiculous.

From option A & C, I'd like to choose option A as GMAC usually prefers verb over Adjective & noun form. In addition to that, original sentence does not indicate intention of outgrown. So, option C could be incorrect.

Imo. A
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 18:09
I have posted the official explanation here.
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 18:25
Quote:
COMMENTS

soulcycle and gmatdordie , welcome to SC Butler. :)


Well, It must have been a hell of a welcome for them :-D Just Kidding, Welcome to this great initiative.

generis, Very nicely explained. :please :please Not that you don't. But this one had a very nice flow to it and was more based on how one should approach the question.

Thank you for all you do, as always!

EDIT: No, I never eliminate any option on any grounds other than strict grammar rules (SV Agreement or Tense may be). Even Pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule on GMAT as we know. "Having" and/or "being" may or may not be wrong. You need to be open to consider the possibility that the usage can be right.
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Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2019, 19:21
Hi generis, to answer your question at the very end of your OE. The longer I looked at (A) vs (B), the more I was inclining towards (A), but decided to pick (B) as it was my original answer. I knew the meaning of the word "hailed", but did not know that it goes with "as". However, the compelling part about (A) was its concision.

I guess one may say that "having Ved" is rarely used.

Thanks much for an awesome explanation!
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New post 14 Nov 2019, 22:53
Hi, generis,

Very nicely explained as usual!! :)

I did not straightforwardly rejected option A because of word 'having' although sound weird meaning and usage. I thought let me park it and find the better option if available. After reviewing all options, i kept option A and C as an contenders as i could not nailed the meaning of original sentence. Ultimately i relied on VAN rule and chose A, which is fortunately correct. In some good questions, such fortune may not be with me. Whenever i stuck between two options and don't understand the meaning, then i go with preferences. I know i must have clear meaning in mind or it can cost me at later stage because preferences are not absolutes.

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Raxit T.
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New post 15 Nov 2019, 06:29
Raxit85 wrote:
Hi, generis,

Very nicely explained as usual!! :)

I did not straightforwardly rejected option A because of word 'having' although sound weird meaning and usage. I thought let me park it and find the better option if available. After reviewing all options, i kept option A and C as an contenders as i could not nailed the meaning of original sentence. Ultimately i relied on VAN rule and chose A, which is fortunately correct. In some good questions, such fortune may not be with me. Whenever i stuck between two options and don't understand the meaning, then i go with preferences. I know i must have clear meaning in mind or it can cost me at later stage because preferences are not absolutes.

Regards,
Raxit T.


Raxit85, Hello!
I don't know what the VAN rule was but I googled and found this: "When a word is used in several ways (as Noun, Adjective, Verb) preference goes as per VAN rule (Verb>Adjective>Noun)". Is that what you are talking about?

Can you give an example or explain with the help of this question only?

Thank you!
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New post 15 Nov 2019, 07:38
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Hi, TheNightking,

Yes, i was talking the same what you mentioned above, i.e. Verb>Adjective>Noun, but it's not absolute rule. We can resort on such rule if we could not infer the meaning or if we need to rush to maintain the pace.

I'd like to present some examples expressing VAN rule.

He has the ability to juggle Vs He is able to juggle Vs He can juggle (Last one is more elegent, having verb form).

1) Prefer a Verb to an (Action) Noun.
e.g. His conception of money was as a goal Vs He conceived of money as a goal.
Her example was an inspiration to me Vs Her example inspired me.
2) Prefer a Verb to an Adjective
e.g. The artist WAS INFLUENTIAL TO the movement Vs The artist INFLUENCED the movement.
This rash is aggravating to the pain Vs This rash aggravates the pain.
3) Prefer an Adjective to a Noun
e.g. THERE IS AN ABUNDANCE OF funds for school construction Vs Funds for school construction ARE ABUNDANT.
We have a disinclination to stay Vs We are disinclined to stay.

As action, outgrow their roots..., can refer to the nations and it must be in the verb form.
A) as having outgrown their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily - Here, action outgrow is correctly mentioned in verb form
C) as an outgrowth of their roots in natural resources, still rely heavily - Here, action outgrow is mentioned in noun form.

The similar patterns of VAN rule can be observed in many official questions.

Hope it helps.

Regards,
Raxit.
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New post 15 Nov 2019, 08:25
Raxit85

While I have applied some of these techniques, I never knew these exist as a rule called VAN.

Thank you for explaining it to me!
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Re: Plunging prices are revealing the extent to which nations, hailed in r   [#permalink] 15 Nov 2019, 08:25
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