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# Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most

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Senior Manager
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Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2019, 09:50
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Difficulty:

85% (hard)

Question Stats:

49% (02:09) correct 51% (02:12) wrong based on 199 sessions

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Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most consumers of that product would be upset to discover in it, then the food should be labeled as containing those ingredients.

Application: Crackly Crisps need not be labeled as containing genetically engineered ingredients, since most consumers of Crackly Crisps would not care if they discovered that fact.

The application of the principle is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) fails to address the possibility that consumers of a specific food may not be representative of consumers of food in general

(B) fails to address the possibility that the genetically engineered ingredients in Crackly Crisps may have been proven safe for human consumption

(C) implicitly makes use of a value judgment that is incompatible with the principle being applied

(D) takes for granted that if most consumers of a product would buy it even if they knew several of the ingredients in it, then they would buy the product even if they knew all the ingredients in it

(E) confuses a claim that under certain conditions a certain action should be taken with a claim that the action need not be taken in the absence of those conditions
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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2019, 02:46
Option A also seems correct.

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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2019, 04:00
vyascd wrote:
Option A also seems correct.

"food in general" is not mentioned in the passage; the passage talks about "Crackly Crisps" specifically. So, that's the reason I believe that A is not correct.
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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2019, 04:44
can you help me why option 4 is incorrect
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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2019, 07:25
Quote:
(D) takes for granted that if most consumers of a product would buy it even if they knew several of the ingredients in it, then they would buy the product even if they knew all the ingredients in it

The matter here is not whether the consumers know all or some of the ingredients, but is about the consumers finding out something about the product that would make them upset.

That's what makes D wrong.
An Evaluate Type Question only requires you to look at what is mentioned/directly implied in the passage.
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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2019, 02:11
1
Understanding the argument:
If a product contains ingredients harmful to consumers then the product "should" be labelled as such.
However, we may need to label the product because of other reasons such as product quality, place of origin etc.
Thus, consider that the product if from a particular place of origin that has different food norms. Hence, we may need to label the food accordingly.

Hence, option E is correct

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2019, 07:56
Someone pls explain why E as I am confused between C and E

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Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Nov 2019, 08:45
2
The 'principle' says: if most consumers would be upset by an ingredient, then that ingredient needs to be listed on the package. That principle is in the form "If A is true, then B needs to be true". Remember from logic that if a "If A then B" statement is correct, its contrapositive must also be logically correct. So if we negate both things and reverse the statement, to get "If B is false, then A is false", we'll arrive at a correct deduction, or in other words "If an ingredient does not need to be listed on the package, then most consumers must not be upset by it" is a correct deduction from the 'principle'. But the logical converse is not a correct deduction. That is, if you simply negate A and B, without reversing the if/then statement, you do not necessarily arrive at something true.

Here, the 'Application' sentence states the converse: "If most consumers are not upset by an ingredient, that ingredient need not be listed". That's not a logically valid deduction from the 'principle', because there might be all kinds of other reasons an ingredient should be listed, besides consumer reaction. Answer E points out, in different language, that the Application confuses the converse with the contrapositive.

This distinction, between the converse and the contrapositive, is tested far more often on the LSAT than on the GMAT.
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Originally posted by IanStewart on 25 Oct 2019, 14:30.
Last edited by IanStewart on 23 Nov 2019, 08:45, edited 1 time in total.
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Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2019, 20:22
1
Hi IanStewart you provided a great explanation with a good note about the frequency with which conditionality is tested on the LSAT vs the GMAT.

I think there is a typo in your explanation, though. If we have a logic "if A then B" and we want to make a contrapositive, we need to (1) negate both sides and (2) flip the order, so the correct contrapositive version will be "If not B then not A", while you wrote "if not A then not B", which is a mistaken negation.
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Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2019, 08:46
mykrasovski wrote:
I think there is a typo in your explanation, though. If we have a logic "if A then B" and we want to make a contrapositive, we need to (1) negate both sides and (2) flip the order, so the correct contrapositive version will be "If not B then not A", while you wrote "if not A then not B", which is a mistaken negation.

Yes, that was a typo, and an important one to fix - thank you for pointing it out!
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If you are looking for online GMAT math tutoring, or if you are interested in buying my advanced Quant books and problem sets, please contact me at ianstewartgmat at gmail.com
Re: Principle: If a food product contains ingredients whose presence most   [#permalink] 23 Nov 2019, 08:46
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