It's great you are thinking ahead. Keep in mind the ideal time to apply to business school is when you have 4-5 years of experience, so while I appreciate your advanced planning, don't wait too long, since schools will be increasingly critical of your work experience and achievements the longer you are out. It's fine to have gaps in your finance background, since that's exactly what the MBA is for, that is, to fill the gaps, but you do need to demonstrate some aptitude for finance, which the CFA can certainly accomplish. Standards like the GMAT and the CFA actually go a long way towards showing interest and ability, so I would also try to nail the quant portion of the GMAT as well. Taking finance coursework is fine too, but because there is wide variation in the quality of such coursework, it won't have the same admissions clout as a standardized assessment such as the GMAT or CFA. Still, you would be wise to take courses to help you prepare, so look into online options such as Coursera offerings.
B-schools love engineers, so the fact that not many of your colleagues go the MBA route is all the better for you, since you will be competing on the admissions front against others with a similar background. I can assure you that many engineers do go to b-school, so be prepared to defend why you deserve a slot over someone else who looks like you on paper. Arming yourself with finance and management knowledge via the MBA is a great way to get ahead in a technical field. I applaud your foresight.
To work in the USA you would need sponsorship, namely an HB1 visa. This is sometimes tricky, since the recruiting companies must do this on your behalf. If your inclination is to work in the EU, I would definitely recommend going to b-school over there, since one of the most powerful takeaways from your b-school experience will be your network, and if you go to school in the US, your network will largely be here. Dual citizenship can be attractive when working in the EU, so if you have the chance to gain citizenship in a country as strong economically as Germany, i would definitely do it.
With a 750 GMAT and international work experience in a hot field such as yours should position you well for your target schools. It's always best to apply to the schools where you feel you fit in best so I would encourage you to visit some of your target schools after doing online research and speaking with alumni, etc. The Indian applicant pool from the tech sector is deep and wide, so I understand your anxiety about standing out. To add diversity to your profile, I would look towards the personal angle--get involved in the community and do some unique things that might be viewed as atypical for your applicant pool. Personal stories resonate well with the adcoms, but they have heard time and time again about starring on a cricket team or volunteering at an NGO. hope this helps