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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 2 New, Date : 01-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemical that is added to many municipal water supplies to reduce bacterial growth. New evidence shows that the rate of first-trimester miscarriages is increased significantly when pregnant women drink five or more glasses of chlorinated water per day. When the chlorine in the water reacts with plant material acids the chemical trihalomethane is formed. Trihalomethane is believed to be the cause of the miscarriages, and it is also linked to increased cancer risk in animals. Lead, which has been shown to cause brain damage in small children, is another main contaminant of urban water systems, as it seeps from old pipes into the water flowing through them. Many water supplies are also contaminated with toxic bacteria, cysts, or algae. Increasing concerns about the effects of harmful contaminants have caused an increase in the number of alternate methods of water filtration that are available to the general public.

There are six major systems, each with its advantages and considerable drawbacks. Steam distillation, in which water is boiled and the steam is collected and cooled, produces water without contaminants. However, energy must be used to heat the water, the resulting water tastes flat, and some organic compounds may boil with the steam and contaminate the water. Carbon filtration removes chlorine from water and leaves it with a better taste, but it cannot remove minerals or heavy metals. In addition, the filter is no longer effective if it becomes clogged, and the carbon can trap and breed harmful bacteria. The ion exchange method uses charged particles in a filter which are exchanged with charged particles in the water to remove minerals and toxic metals. This method has a corrosive effect on pipes, and it does not remove organic molecules. It also increases the level of sodium, iron, and lead in the water. Ultraviolet light is simple and can kill microorganisms, but it has no effect on chemicals or minerals in the water. Reverse osmosis removes minerals, toxic heavy metals, and bacteria by forcing the water through a semipermeable membrane. This method is extremely slow, wastes large amounts of water, and corrodes the most durable of pipes.

Of the many different types of water filtration systems available, a combination KDF/carbon block system may be the most effective. The KDF system, which stands for kinetic degradation fluxion, forces water through a chamber containing a mixture of copper and zinc. In the chamber, electrochemical reaction that takes place removes
chlorine, chloramine, iron, hydrogen sulfide, and many other harmful substances from the water. The water is then forced through a solid carbon block filter, which removes more impurities, such as bacteria and algae, from the water. Many KDF/carbon block filtration systems also contain a ceramic pre-filter, which removes other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp. fecal coliform, as well as cysts such as Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. As a by-product of filtration, the KDF/carbon block system puts small amounts of copper and zinc into the water that are not harmful to humans.

1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A. Several methods are described and ranked in terms of desirability.
B. A general theory is offered and refuted by several counterexamples.
C. A current process is assailed, and several alternatives are presented as possible replacements.
D. An old solution is revived as a possible remedy to a new problem.
E. A paradox is presented, and several examples are used to reconcile it.

2. Each of the following is a disadvantage of the ion exchange method of water filtration EXCEPT:

A. higher sodium levels in the water
B. damaged pipes
C. unaffected contaminants of an organic nature
D. dangerous copper and zinc contamination
E. an increase of lead

3. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about the KDF system?

A. It prevents the formation of trihalomethane in the water supply.
B. It would work much better if used in concert with a semipermeable membrane.
C. The electrochemical reaction causes most of the copper and zinc that are originally introduced into the water to dissolve.
D. Without the additional ceramic pre-filter, it is no more effective than the combined effect of ion exchange and ultraviolet light.
E. Its ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange.

4. According to the passage, the author’s opinion of the best water filtration system would probably change if which of the following were true?

A. If the KDF system is used indefinitely, the levels of copper and zinc that it introduces into the water supply will eventually become toxic.
B. All new residential dwellings are fitted with pipes made of durable plastic that lead cannot seep through.
C. Ultraviolet light is one-tenth as expensive as each of the other techniques mentioned.
D. Subsequent studies have revealed that there is no relation between trihalomethane and cancer.
E. KDF is available only in urban areas with tax bases that withstand the cost of installing such a system.



Difficulty Level: 650

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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2019, 13:34
12
5 mins 21 secs & got 3 out of 4 correct. A long passage which is tiring to read but pretty straightforward questions.

Summary/Gist:
The passage begins with presenting the downside (cancer-causing chemical formed) of using chlorine to kill bacteria. The entire first paragraph talks about the need for alternate filtration methods as traditional ones lead to chlorine, lead and bacterial problems in water. The next paragraph is a large one which talks about many filtration methods but always gives drawbacks to each. This is a detail question nightmare. The last paragraph introduces a final solution (KDF system) which is a new technique.

Flow of information question made difficult by the tricky options.
1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
A. Several methods are described and ranked in terms of desirability. There is no ranking and hence discarded.
B. A general theory is offered and refuted by several counterexamples. No theory is offered let alone refuted by counterexamples. Discard.
C. A current process is assailed, and several alternatives are presented as possible replacements. Looks suspect. Hold. Fits the bill - several alternatives to filtration are presented and all are possible replacements. This does not capture the entire picture of the passage but is the best of the lot.
D. An old solution is revived as a possible remedy to a new problem. "Old solution revived" is definitely not the case. Discard.
E. A paradox is presented, and several examples are used to reconcile it. No paradox. Discard.

Easy detail question. Pretty straightforward and thank the heavens for that :-)
2. Each of the following is a disadvantage of the ion exchange method of water filtration EXCEPT:
A. higher sodium levels in the water
B. damaged pipes
C. unaffected contaminants of an organic nature
D. dangerous copper and zinc contamination TICK.
E. an increase of lead

Tricky question - with so much information and options that require close inspection - such questions definitely test the test-taker for time management.
3. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about the KDF system?
A. It prevents the formation of trihalomethane in the water supply. Suspect. Hold. The KDF method does not deal with chlorine at all. Seems to be the right answer as the alternative filtration ensures that the original cholrine based filtration will not be used and hence the chemical will not be formed.
B. It would work much better if used in concert with a semipermeable membrane. Speculative - not mentioned and hence cannot be "inferred" from the passage.
C. The electrochemical reaction causes most of the copper and zinc that are originally introduced into the water to dissolve. Speculative - again for the same reasons we need to discard it. It is mentioned that the byproduct is copper and zinc but we do not know how exactly they end up in the water. Cannot be inferred.
D. Without the additional ceramic pre-filter, it is no more effective than the combined effect of ion exchange and ultraviolet light. TRAP - I fell for it considering the time it takes to verify. But on verification, it can be seen that this is not the case. Discard.
E. Its ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange. Cannot be inferred. No comparisons made. Discard.

KDF ticks all the right boxes and just had a harmless byproduct. If somehow the byproduct was harmful or some of the boxes could not be ticked due to new info - we would be looking out for such things.
4. According to the passage, the author’s opinion of the best water filtration system would probably change if which of the following were true?
A. If the KDF system is used indefinitely, the levels of copper and zinc that it introduces into the water supply will eventually become toxic. BINGO - this hits the sweet spot of why KDF would go from the best to useless method real fast.
B. All new residential dwellings are fitted with pipes made of durable plastic that lead cannot seep through. Not related to KDF - some of the other methods would benefit but KDF is not affected.
C. Ultraviolet light is one-tenth as expensive as each of the other techniques mentioned. Unrelated to KDF discard.
D. Subsequent studies have revealed that there is no relation between trihalomethane and cancer. Discard for same reason as above.
E. KDF is available only in urban areas with tax bases that withstand the cost of installing such a system. TRAP - this could be a reason to discard it - but to begin with the scope of the passage is "Municipalties" which are urban governments and this options is not as crystal clear as Option (A). Hence discard.

Hope this is helpful. :-)
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New post 07 Feb 2019, 05:41
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Official Explanation


1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

Explanation

The first paragraph discusses the new concerns about an established method of purifying water (chlorine). The remainder of the passage bombards us with many alternative ideas and the pros and cons of each. A is close, but the six new ideas are never actually ranked.

ANSWER: C


2. Each of the following is a disadvantage of the ion exchange method of water filtration EXCEPT:

Explanation

Go back and read all about ion exchange, which is first mentioned in the middle (sixth sentence) of paragraph two. Each of the answer choices is mentioned in the subsequent sentences except D. Use of copper and zinc doesn’t come up until the last paragraph, which is about the KDF process. It’s a classic case of misdirection.

ANSWER: D


3. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about the KDF system?

Explanation

This one requires a little reading in two different places. The last paragraph tells us that the KDF system removes chlorine from the water (third sentence of last paragraph). Earlier in the passage, we learn that chlorine reacts with plant material acids and trihalomethane is formed (third sentence of paragraph one). Because the KDF system gets rid of chlorine, trihalomethane can’t be formed. Even though the passage’s author asserts that KDF may be the most effective (first sentence of last paragraph), we still don’t know anything about direct comparisons with any of the other alternatives mentioned.

ANSWER: A


4. According to the passage, the author’s opinion of the best water filtration system would probably change if which of the following were true?

Explanation

The author is clearly a big fan of the KDF system, which works by introducing copper and zinc into the water (last sentence of passage). The author states that these metals are not harmful to humans. If we later learned, though, that unlimited use of KDF creates toxic levels of copper and zinc, then the KDF system isn’t nearly as effective as the author thinks. She might change her mind.

ANSWER: A


Hope it Helps
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New post 01 Feb 2019, 12:16
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New post 02 Feb 2019, 08:53
SajjadAhmad

Bro!! You have started a great thread!! Kudos to you(I have also given one :p)

I would suggest you to post combination of 1 medium and 1 hard passage. In this way, members will be able to practice better.

Rest, you are the KING :) (Kidding)


Gladiator59

It took me 8 mins and 4 seconds to answer the questions and I got 3/4 correct.
Q-3 was a tricky one.

It is said that Ion exchange increases the level of iron from water whereas the KDF removes the iron from water.
Cannot we say based on this that "KDF's ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange"

I marked E based on my reasoning above. Please help.
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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2019, 09:32
2
Hi warrior1991,

So for inference type questions, we need to ensure 100% support for the correct option from the passage. Either direct or indirect. While you do make a valid point about Iron content, such a comparison cannot be "inferred" as so many other issues could affect it. Given this, I feel the OA is a stronger candidate.

Moreover, whenever you see a comparison being made between two things which the passage never intended to compare, it is usually a trap option.

Hope this helps.

warrior1991 wrote:

Gladiator59

It took me 8 mins and 4 seconds to answer the questions and I got 3/4 correct.
Q-3 was a tricky one.

It is said that Ion exchange increases the level of iron from water whereas the KDF removes the iron from water.
Cannot we say based on this that "KDF's ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange"

I marked E based on my reasoning above. Please help.

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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2019, 11:08
1
Thanks for Suggestion, will I try my best to do the same

Regards


warrior1991 wrote:
SajjadAhmad

Bro!! You have started a great thread!! Kudos to you(I have also given one :p)

I would suggest you to post combination of 1 medium and 1 hard passage. In this way, members will be able to practice better.

Rest, you are the KING :) (Kidding)

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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2019, 04:06
Please suggest me how to manage time RC.it usually took me 13 to 14 min for 1 passage,which ultimately create time pressure
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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 09:03
1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
ANS: C -> A current process is assailed, and several alternatives are presented as possible replacements.
from the passage we can infer below points.
1st pass. -> explaining drawbacks of traditional water supply and looking for alternative water filtration.
2nd pass. -> describe 6 types of water filtration.
3rd pass. -> explain which filtration is best and why.
from above we can understand that C is correct answer.
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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 08:20
SNHRY wrote:
Please suggest me how to manage time RC.it usually took me 13 to 14 min for 1 passage,which ultimately create time pressure


SNHRY

Go-thru this RC thread : http://gmatclub.com/forum/verbal-questi ... 95438.html
It will definitely help you

Hope this helps!
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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2019, 19:44
Pretty good passage, all correct . I am taking a bit longer to solve RC passages . Any suggestions please .
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New post 09 Apr 2019, 19:48
LoneSurvivor wrote:
Pretty good passage, all correct . I am taking a bit longer to solve RC passages . Any suggestions please .



How i can improve RC.My RC is pathetic, I always get 10 12 min on average passage and half of the question get correct??

Posted from my mobile device
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New post 09 Apr 2019, 19:56
SNHRY These explanations are gold. There are two things about your queries,

1. You are taking more time but not getting accuracy. This implies your basics are not clear and you need to learn how POE works.
2. You are taking more time and getting answers correct . This implies you need to improve speed reading with increasing comprehension skills without hampering accuracy.

Hope it helps


Gladiator59 wrote:
5 mins 21 secs & got 3 out of 4 correct. A long passage which is tiring to read but pretty straightforward questions.

Summary/Gist:
The passage begins with presenting the downside (cancer-causing chemical formed) of using chlorine to kill bacteria. The entire first paragraph talks about the need for alternate filtration methods as traditional ones lead to chlorine, lead and bacterial problems in water. The next paragraph is a large one which talks about many filtration methods but always gives drawbacks to each. This is a detail question nightmare. The last paragraph introduces a final solution (KDF system) which is a new technique.

Flow of information question made difficult by the tricky options.
1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
A. Several methods are described and ranked in terms of desirability. There is no ranking and hence discarded.
B. A general theory is offered and refuted by several counterexamples. No theory is offered let alone refuted by counterexamples. Discard.
C. A current process is assailed, and several alternatives are presented as possible replacements. Looks suspect. Hold. Fits the bill - several alternatives to filtration are presented and all are possible replacements. This does not capture the entire picture of the passage but is the best of the lot.
D. An old solution is revived as a possible remedy to a new problem. "Old solution revived" is definitely not the case. Discard.
E. A paradox is presented, and several examples are used to reconcile it. No paradox. Discard.

Easy detail question. Pretty straightforward and thank the heavens for that :-)
2. Each of the following is a disadvantage of the ion exchange method of water filtration EXCEPT:
A. higher sodium levels in the water
B. damaged pipes
C. unaffected contaminants of an organic nature
D. dangerous copper and zinc contamination TICK.
E. an increase of lead

Tricky question - with so much information and options that require close inspection - such questions definitely test the test-taker for time management.
3. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about the KDF system?
A. It prevents the formation of trihalomethane in the water supply. Suspect. Hold. The KDF method does not deal with chlorine at all. Seems to be the right answer as the alternative filtration ensures that the original cholrine based filtration will not be used and hence the chemical will not be formed.
B. It would work much better if used in concert with a semipermeable membrane. Speculative - not mentioned and hence cannot be "inferred" from the passage.
C. The electrochemical reaction causes most of the copper and zinc that are originally introduced into the water to dissolve. Speculative - again for the same reasons we need to discard it. It is mentioned that the byproduct is copper and zinc but we do not know how exactly they end up in the water. Cannot be inferred.
D. Without the additional ceramic pre-filter, it is no more effective than the combined effect of ion exchange and ultraviolet light. TRAP - I fell for it considering the time it takes to verify. But on verification, it can be seen that this is not the case. Discard.
E. Its ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange. Cannot be inferred. No comparisons made. Discard.

KDF ticks all the right boxes and just had a harmless byproduct. If somehow the byproduct was harmful or some of the boxes could not be ticked due to new info - we would be looking out for such things.
4. According to the passage, the author’s opinion of the best water filtration system would probably change if which of the following were true?
A. If the KDF system is used indefinitely, the levels of copper and zinc that it introduces into the water supply will eventually become toxic. BINGO - this hits the sweet spot of why KDF would go from the best to useless method real fast.
B. All new residential dwellings are fitted with pipes made of durable plastic that lead cannot seep through. Not related to KDF - some of the other methods would benefit but KDF is not affected.
C. Ultraviolet light is one-tenth as expensive as each of the other techniques mentioned. Unrelated to KDF discard.
D. Subsequent studies have revealed that there is no relation between trihalomethane and cancer. Discard for same reason as above.
E. KDF is available only in urban areas with tax bases that withstand the cost of installing such a system. TRAP - this could be a reason to discard it - but to begin with the scope of the passage is "Municipalties" which are urban governments and this options is not as crystal clear as Option (A). Hence discard.

Hope this is helpful. :-)

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Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2019, 00:05
SajjadAhmad wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 2 New, Date : 01-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details



3. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about the KDF system?

A. It prevents the formation of trihalomethane in the water supply.
B. It would work much better if used in concert with a semipermeable membrane.
C. The electrochemical reaction causes most of the copper and zinc that are originally introduced into the water to dissolve.
D. Without the additional ceramic pre-filter, it is no more effective than the combined effect of ion exchange and ultraviolet light.
E. Its ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange.

Difficulty Level: 650




Hi,
In this third question , many have rejected answer option E stating that there is no comparison between the KDF system and the ion exchange method. But, the passage clearly states that the ion exchange method adds iron while the KDF removes iron. Hence an inference can be made that the KDF's ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange.

OA is A, which I understand and agree with. But, it would be great if someone could shed some light on why E should be rejected.
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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2019, 08:40
3. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about the KDF system?

A. It prevents the formation of trihalomethane in the water supply.
B. It would work much better if used in concert with a semipermeable membrane.
C. The electrochemical reaction causes most of the copper and zinc that are originally introduced into the water to dissolve.
D. Without the additional ceramic pre-filter, it is no more effective than the combined effect of ion exchange and ultraviolet light.
E. Its ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange.





Hi,
In this third question , many have rejected answer option E stating that there is no comparison between the KDF system and the ion exchange method. But, the passage clearly states that the ion exchange method adds iron while the KDF removes iron. Hence an inference can be made that the KDF's ability to remove iron from water is superior to that of ion exchange.

OA is A, which I understand and agree with. But, it would be great if someone could shed some light on why E should be rejected.
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Re: Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 09:02
I HAVE FACING PROBLEM WITH RC PASSAGE. EVERY QUESTION IS GOING TO WRONG DIRECTION.HOW CAN I IMPROVE MYSELF WITHIN 2 MONTHS?
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New post 02 Jul 2019, 12:42
Hi dbanerjee,

Welcome to GMAT Club :-)

Go through the detailed explanations in the thread to understand the thinking process that others (and Official answer) are taking and see where your thinking process differs. I would suggest you to start with lower level questions as can be filtered easily by the tag (700 level etc. could be kept for later)
Once you understand the thinking process try to emulate without bothering too much about the time consumed. Speed will come with practice.

There are many people here who will explain specific doubts and that is how you will improve.
2 months is sufficient time if you put in the appropriate amount of effort.
Good luck. :-)

dbanerjee wrote:
I HAVE FACING PROBLEM WITH RC PASSAGE. EVERY QUESTION IS GOING TO WRONG DIRECTION.HOW CAN I IMPROVE MYSELF WITHIN 2 MONTHS?

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Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemi   [#permalink] 02 Jul 2019, 12:42
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