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QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize

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QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2018, 09:44
1
15
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A
B
C
D
E

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 239: Sentence Correction


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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

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QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2018, 23:48
1
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I tend to get a lot of questions about dashes, and that’s part of why we chose this question for a QOTD. In general, I don’t think you need to waste much time worrying about them: I’ve never seen an official GMAT question in which the presence or absence of a dash was a deciding factor. (For more on dashes and colons and other punctuation on the GMAT, check out this video.)

And in this particular sentence, the dashes aren’t doing anything terribly interesting. They’re just separating a modifier from the rest of the sentence. So we’ll focus on more interesting stuff.

Quote:
(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

I don’t see any problems here at all. “Their” jumps out at me, but it seems to refer to the two organizations, so that’s perfectly OK. Let’s keep (A).

Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

For starters, there are some unnecessary extra words in the beginning of the underlined portion: why say “struggled as they try to meet the expectations” when we could just say “struggled to meet the expectations”?

The bigger problem is the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined portion. The trouble is, I don’t really see any singular nouns “that” could possibly refer to. Logically, “that” should refer to “the needs” (which is not stated anywhere in the sentence) or maybe “the expectations”, but those are both plural, anyway.

So we can eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

The first part of the underlined portion looks fine, but we still have exactly the same problem with the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined section. “That” is singular, and there are no logical singular referents.

So we can eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

Once again, the singular pronoun “that” has no logical referent. See the explanation for (B) for more on that issue.

The first part of the underlined section also has some problems. There’s really no reason to say that the organizations “had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations” when we could just say “continually struggled to meet the expectations”, as in (A).

So we have plenty of reasons to get rid of (D).

Quote:
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

We still have some wasted words at the beginning of the underlined portion: “struggled continually in trying to meet… expectations” is a lousy substitute for the version in (A), which just says “continually struggled to meet expectations.”

There’s also a parallelism problem after the dashes in (E). The parallelism trigger “and” is followed by the participle “neglecting” – and nothing could possibly be parallel to “neglecting” here. It makes much more sense to use a nice, normal verb form (“neglected”) that can be parallel to “struggled.”

So (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2018, 01:30
I would also go with C. Complying with parallelism and compactness.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2018, 01:43
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Will be with A ..in C "major shareholders’ expectations" is not making sense ..it should be major share holder not major expectations..

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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2018, 02:53
I would go with A on this one as "that of" in option C doesn't make sense.
same goes for B and D whereas E has parallelism issue.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2018, 05:12
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(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected - Correct.

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - No proper antecedent to 'that'

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of - Same as B

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - Same as B

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting - Parallelism error

Answer: A
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2018, 14:55
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Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2018, 21:22
Choice A is definitely the best answer here, but i wouldn't call it perfect. Shortening the sentence a bit, we have:

Quote:
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have . . . continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders . . . but neglected their intended beneficiaries . . . .


I guess it's assumed that the perfect tense carries over to the second verb? In other words, it seems there's an implied have immediately before neglected?

I just find the omission of have there awkward. Why? Because there are 18 words between the end of the first verb and the beginning of the second, so it's not as if your mind automatically registers, "Oh, there's obviously a have there." ;)
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2018, 07:34
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svanbergh13 wrote:
Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.



Hello svanbergh13,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

The sentence starts with the purpose why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created. They were created to reduce poverty and to stabilize foreign currency markets. Now, these financial institutions struggled to meet the expectation of their major shareholders that comprised may rich nations. But they neglected their real beneficiaries in the developing world.

So the sentence intends to project that these institutions did what they were not meant to do but neglected to do what they were actually meant to do. The contrast brings out the irony presented in the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2018, 08:24
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svanbergh13 wrote:
If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast.

Hi svanbergh13, this is indeed the intended meaning and I can understand why the word struggled is creating a confusion here.

Here, struggled is used in the sense of strove (past tense of strive). So, replace struggled with strove, and the sentence would make sense.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2018, 12:02
Thank you EducationAisle, it all makes sense now. I've never seen 'struggle' used as a synonym for 'strove' before. This is a great lesson learned. Cheers!
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2018, 20:50
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma egmat

Quote:
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.



Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of


Can I not safely discard (B) on the basis of parallelism marker - BUT - since I correctly need
verbs - have struggled and (have) neglected - to relate back to plural subject - IMF and world banks.
The tense and number aggrement of the verbs in (A) are correct.

I agree with pronoun ambiguity, but prefer other errors when evident in PoE.

neglecting is veb-ing modifier acting as noun in (B), and a verb is better suited.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2018, 11:31
adkikani wrote:
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma egmat

Quote:
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.



Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of


Can I not safely discard (B) on the basis of parallelism marker - BUT - since I correctly need
verbs - have struggled and (have) neglected - to relate back to plural subject - IMF and world banks.
The tense and number aggrement of the verbs in (A) are correct.

I agree with pronoun ambiguity, but prefer other errors when evident in PoE.

neglecting is veb-ing modifier acting as noun in (B), and a verb is better suited.



Hi adkikani ,
There is no antecedent for the pronoun THAT here. So, this scenario is not a case of Pronoun ambiguity-when a pronoun has multiple antecedents.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2018, 21:36
Hi GMATNinja


"(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group "
Do you think that there is modifier error also in this... what does "a group" refer to?

GMATNinja wrote:
I tend to get a lot of questions about dashes, and that’s part of why we chose this question for a QOTD. In general, I don’t think you need to waste much time worrying about them: I’ve never seen an official GMAT question in which the presence or absence of a dash was a deciding factor. (For more on dashes and colons and other punctuation on the GMAT, check out this video.)

And in this particular sentence, the dashes aren’t doing anything terribly interesting. They’re just separating a modifier from the rest of the sentence. So we’ll focus on more interesting stuff.

Quote:
(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

I don’t see any problems here at all. “Their” jumps out at me, but it seems to refer to the two organizations, so that’s perfectly OK. Let’s keep (A).

Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

For starters, there are some unnecessary extra words in the beginning of the underlined portion: why say “struggled as they try to meet the expectations” when we could just say “struggled to meet the expectations”?

The bigger problem is the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined portion. The trouble is, I don’t really see any singular nouns “that” could possibly refer to. Logically, “that” should refer to “the needs” (which is not stated anywhere in the sentence) or maybe “the expectations”, but those are both plural, anyway.

So we can eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

The first part of the underlined portion looks fine, but we still have exactly the same problem with the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined section. “That” is singular, and there are no logical singular referents.

So we can eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

Once again, the singular pronoun “that” has no logical referent. See the explanation for (B) for more on that issue.

The first part of the underlined section also has some problems. There’s really no reason to say that the organizations “had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations” when we could just say “continually struggled to meet the expectations”, as in (A).

So we have plenty of reasons to get rid of (D).

Quote:
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

We still have some wasted words at the beginning of the underlined portion: “struggled continually in trying to meet… expectations” is a lousy substitute for the version in (A), which just says “continually struggled to meet expectations.”

There’s also a parallelism problem after the dashes in (E). The parallelism trigger “and” is followed by the participle “neglecting” – and nothing could possibly be parallel to “neglecting” here. It makes much more sense to use a nice, normal verb form (“neglected”) that can be parallel to “struggled.”

So (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).

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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2018, 20:35
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Hi GMATNinja


"(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group "
Do you think that there is modifier error also in this... what does "a group" refer to?


Yup, there's a modifier error!

Quote:
continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of


It sounds as though "a group" is referring to the "shareholders' expectations". And if "a group... of the world's rich nations" is describing "shareholders' expectations", that's pretty messed up, on all sorts of levels.

I hope this helps!
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2018, 00:46
egmat wrote:
svanbergh13 wrote:
Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.



Hello svanbergh13,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

The sentence starts with the purpose why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created. They were created to reduce poverty and to stabilize foreign currency markets. Now, these financial institutions struggled to meet the expectation of their major shareholders that comprised may rich nations. But they neglected their real beneficiaries in the developing world.

So the sentence intends to project that these institutions did what they were not meant to do but neglected to do what they were actually meant to do. The contrast brings out the irony presented in the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha..I have one question regarding the point....shareholders' expectations - a group comprising many of the world’s ..
Is n't incorrect to refer "a group comprising many of the world’s " to a possessive noun " shareholders' " .It should refer to shareholders only.
I considered it as an error but none of the POE mentioned about it.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 04:27
Hi GMATNinja

In A, if it finishes as "-neglected those of..", is it still ok?
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 05:49
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected --> correct

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of --> what is "that " referred to, if it is "expectations" then "those" should be used

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of --> "a group" should be followed by "shareholders"

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of --> same as B

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting--> same as C
Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize &nbs [#permalink] 14 Jul 2018, 05:49
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