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# Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency

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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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Sash143
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A)....

B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- while neglecting that of

C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders' expectations- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- but neglected that of

D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- while neglecting that of

E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders' expectations- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- and neglecting

another point in addition to daagh post...
what does a group comprising many of the world's rich nations refers to.....
their major shareholders or their major shareholders' expectations...
C and E can be eliminated....
D has an extra 'had so D out..
B is out for changing meaning by usage of 'while" and struggled as is not correct ..
ans A
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The fastest way for me though this question was to notice that "that" cannot refer to "expectations". Eliminate B, C and D. E can be eliminated on the basis of parallel structure. “Struggled” and “neglecting” are not parallel. Notice also the presence of a contrast in the sentence. They “struggled to meet”… “but neglected”. It is appropriate to have a contrast here. “Struggled to meet” and “neglected / or neglecting” would not work on this basis either.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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stevekeating
The fastest way for me though this question was to notice that "that" cannot refer to "expectations". Eliminate B, C and D. E can be eliminated on the basis of parallel structure. “Struggled” and “neglecting” are not parallel. Notice also the presence of a contrast in the sentence. They “struggled to meet”… “but neglected”. It is appropriate to have a contrast here. “Struggled to meet” and “neglected / or neglecting” would not work on this basis either.

Hello Steve,
Would it be possible to expound why "That" cannot refer to "expectation"
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The singular "that" cannot refer to the plural "expectations". It would have to be "those of" to refer to the expectations of their intended beneficiaries in the developing world. Be particularly careful of any "reference" words in GMAT sentence correction problems. Such words include this, that, these and those. Pronouns are also relevant here. You should check what these words refer to. Then ask yourself is there agreement in terms of singular / plural between the reference word and the thing it refers to.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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can anyone explain the change of meaning between BUT & WHILE ? I'm really confused here :/
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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Hi Experts GMATNinja mikemcgarry
can any one please explain clearly the contrast in (A)?
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Takdir
can anyone explain the change of meaning between BUT & WHILE ? I'm really confused here :/

Hello Takdir,

The word but is used to present a contrast. The word while is used to present either contrast or simultaneous action.

The official sentence in question intends to present the contrast. The World Bank and the the International Monetary Fund have struggled to meet the expectations of certain rich nations. But it has neglected those nations that were meant to be the beneficiary of these organizations.

However, use of while in Choices B and D seems to suggest simultaneous action. Usage of while seems to convey that the two organizations have struggled to meet the expectations of certain rich nations and neglected the intended beneficiaries at the same time. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.

Hence, to clearly present the contrast with no room for any ambiguity, use of but is appropriate in this official sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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Hi Experts GMATNinja mikemcgarry
can any one please explain clearly the contrast in (A)?

Read the sentence very carefully. Right in the beginning, it presents the reason why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created.

So the real beneficiaries of these two organizations should be the developing countries. But that is not the case.

These two organizations have struggled to keep certain rich nations happy and neglected the real beneficiaries.

However, it should be the other way round.

The two organizations have struggled to do what they are not meant to do but have neglected the real beneficiaries.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected - Correct.

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - No proper antecedent to 'that'

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of - Same as B

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - Same as B

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting - Parallelism error

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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.
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Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.

Hello svanbergh13,

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

The sentence starts with the purpose why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created. They were created to reduce poverty and to stabilize foreign currency markets. Now, these financial institutions struggled to meet the expectation of their major shareholders that comprised may rich nations. But they neglected their real beneficiaries in the developing world.

So the sentence intends to project that these institutions did what they were not meant to do but neglected to do what they were actually meant to do. The contrast brings out the irony presented in the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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svanbergh13
If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast.
Hi svanbergh13, this is indeed the intended meaning and I can understand why the word struggled is creating a confusion here.

Here, struggled is used in the sense of strove (past tense of strive). So, replace struggled with strove, and the sentence would make sense.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency [#permalink]
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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected
B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of
D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

Choice E- two ideally parallel entities Struggled and Neglecting are obviously not parallel.WRONG.
Choice D- usage of past perfect 'had to struggle' indicated that it struggled first then did something else, which is missing.WRONG.
Choice C- Wrong modifier usage 'Shareholders' expectation- a group company...' nonsensical. WRONG.
Choice-B- Again parallelism seems off- struggled and neglecting. WRONG IMO.
Choice A- Looks the best bet. Please enlighten me folks. But meaning wise usage of But is confusing me.

Kindly help!
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Here is my take on this question & I too have a doubt. May be some good scorers can shed some light. gmatexam, abhimahna

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected (The only confusion I have in this is the use of two "-" then But. Based on my understanding the structure of the sentence seems to be this: Verb-ed modifier, IC, but IC. Now the confusion is can - replace a comma??. Other then this confusion everything else in this options is correct)

B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of (Wrong because I believe the use of they here is redundant. For example its better to say: John and katie have struggled to meet the expectations VS John & Katie have struggled as they try to meet the expectations) Also that of at the end of this option does not seems correct because it almost seems as per this option that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of shareholders while neglecting the expectations of their beneficiaries. Whereas the real meaning is that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of their shareholders and neglected the real beneficiaries for which these two identities were created in the first place. I am not so clear about the parallelism)

C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)

D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of ( Wrong because we can not say the world bank and IMF(International world bank) have had to struggle. I am positive that the use of have+ had is not correct- But if someone can confirm this I will appreciate it)

E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)
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Hello Rocket7,

Here is my take on this question & I too have a doubt. May be some good scorers can shed some light. gmatexam, abhimahna

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected (The only confusion I have in this is the use of two "-" then But. Based on my understanding the structure of the sentence seems to be this: Verb-ed modifier, IC, but IC. Now the confusion is can - replace a comma??. Other then this confusion everything else in this options is correct)
--Yes we can use "-" instead of a ",". The only difference is that "-" is stronger than ",".

B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of (Wrong because I believe the use of they here is redundant. For example its better to say: John and katie have struggled to meet the expectations VS John & Katie have struggled as they try to meet the expectations) Also that of at the end of this option does not seems correct because it almost seems as per this option that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of shareholders while neglecting the expectations of their beneficiaries. Whereas the real meaning is that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of their shareholders and neglected the real beneficiaries for which these two identities were created in the first place. I am not so clear about the parallelism)

C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)
--I am not sure of what noun+ noun modifier but your analysis of "expectations" is spot on. Also, the usage of "that" in the end is wrong.

D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of ( Wrong because we can not say the world bank and IMF(International world bank) have had to struggle. I am positive that the use of have+ had is not correct- But if someone can confirm this I will appreciate it)
--Yes "have had" is wrongly used here

E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)
--Again I am not sure of noun + noun modifier and again your analysis of "expectations" is spot on. Also if you have a look at "and neglecting" at the end, the usage is incorrect. We need a "but" to show contrast. Also usage of present continuous is wrong (neglecting) because in order to maintain parallelism (struggled ..... neglected ...) we need simple past tense.

I hope that helps a bit!
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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

I solved this using the concept of modifiers & POE, "major shareholders" has to be "a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations", so, C & E are out. It's A, B or E.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected - Remains. Correct.

B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - Incorrect. "they, "thier", "that of" and "verb+ing" too much going on here.

C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of - Incorrect as explained above.

D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - "had to", verb+ing, "that of" too much going on here.

E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting - Incorrect as explained above.