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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency

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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Sep 2018, 02:56
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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.


(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting


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Originally posted by Sash143 on 16 Dec 2015, 01:18.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Sep 2018, 02:56, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2015, 03:09
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The expressions ‘try to meet’ and ‘trying to meet’ in B, D and E are inappropriate since the institutions did not struggle in trying but struggled in meeting the expectations. In additions B, D and E use wrong transition conjunctions such as ‘while’ and ‘and’ to show a contrast. Therefore, B, D and E can be safely removed.
Between A and C: C has a problem of using the demonstrative pronoun’ that’ instead of the ‘those’ to denote the plural ‘expectations’.
So A.
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QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2018, 23:48
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I tend to get a lot of questions about dashes, and that’s part of why we chose this question for a QOTD. In general, I don’t think you need to waste much time worrying about them: I’ve never seen an official GMAT question in which the presence or absence of a dash was a deciding factor. (For more on dashes and colons and other punctuation on the GMAT, check out this video.)

And in this particular sentence, the dashes aren’t doing anything terribly interesting. They’re just separating a modifier from the rest of the sentence. So we’ll focus on more interesting stuff.

Quote:
(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

I don’t see any problems here at all. “Their” jumps out at me, but it seems to refer to the two organizations, so that’s perfectly OK. Let’s keep (A).

Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

For starters, there are some unnecessary extra words in the beginning of the underlined portion: why say “struggled as they try to meet the expectations” when we could just say “struggled to meet the expectations”?

The bigger problem is the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined portion. The trouble is, I don’t really see any singular nouns “that” could possibly refer to. Logically, “that” should refer to “the needs” (which is not stated anywhere in the sentence) or maybe “the expectations”, but those are both plural, anyway.

So we can eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

The first part of the underlined portion looks fine, but we still have exactly the same problem with the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined section. “That” is singular, and there are no logical singular referents.

So we can eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

Once again, the singular pronoun “that” has no logical referent. See the explanation for (B) for more on that issue.

The first part of the underlined section also has some problems. There’s really no reason to say that the organizations “had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations” when we could just say “continually struggled to meet the expectations”, as in (A).

So we have plenty of reasons to get rid of (D).

Quote:
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

We still have some wasted words at the beginning of the underlined portion: “struggled continually in trying to meet… expectations” is a lousy substitute for the version in (A), which just says “continually struggled to meet expectations.”

There’s also a parallelism problem after the dashes in (E). The parallelism trigger “and” is followed by the participle “neglecting” – and nothing could possibly be parallel to “neglecting” here. It makes much more sense to use a nice, normal verb form (“neglected”) that can be parallel to “struggled.”

So (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).
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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2018, 23:38
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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2015, 06:30
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Sash143 wrote:
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A)....

B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- while neglecting that of

C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders' expectations- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- but neglected that of

D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- while neglecting that of

E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders' expectations- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- and neglecting



another point in addition to daagh post...
what does a group comprising many of the world's rich nations refers to.....
their major shareholders or their major shareholders' expectations...
C and E can be eliminated....
D has an extra 'had so D out..
B is out for changing meaning by usage of 'while" and struggled as is not correct ..
ans A
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2015, 12:00
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The fastest way for me though this question was to notice that "that" cannot refer to "expectations". Eliminate B, C and D. E can be eliminated on the basis of parallel structure. “Struggled” and “neglecting” are not parallel. Notice also the presence of a contrast in the sentence. They “struggled to meet”… “but neglected”. It is appropriate to have a contrast here. “Struggled to meet” and “neglected / or neglecting” would not work on this basis either.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2016, 15:57
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stevekeating wrote:
The fastest way for me though this question was to notice that "that" cannot refer to "expectations". Eliminate B, C and D. E can be eliminated on the basis of parallel structure. “Struggled” and “neglecting” are not parallel. Notice also the presence of a contrast in the sentence. They “struggled to meet”… “but neglected”. It is appropriate to have a contrast here. “Struggled to meet” and “neglected / or neglecting” would not work on this basis either.



Hello Steve,
Would it be possible to expound why "That" cannot refer to "expectation"
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2016, 19:29
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The singular "that" cannot refer to the plural "expectations". It would have to be "those of" to refer to the expectations of their intended beneficiaries in the developing world. Be particularly careful of any "reference" words in GMAT sentence correction problems. Such words include this, that, these and those. Pronouns are also relevant here. You should check what these words refer to. Then ask yourself is there agreement in terms of singular / plural between the reference word and the thing it refers to.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2017, 08:05
can anyone explain the change of meaning between BUT & WHILE ? I'm really confused here :/
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2017, 19:45
Hi Experts GMATNinja mikemcgarry
can any one please explain clearly the contrast in (A)?
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 15:20
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Takdir wrote:
can anyone explain the change of meaning between BUT & WHILE ? I'm really confused here :/



Hello Takdir,

I would be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

The word but is used to present a contrast. The word while is used to present either contrast or simultaneous action.

The official sentence in question intends to present the contrast. The World Bank and the the International Monetary Fund have struggled to meet the expectations of certain rich nations. But it has neglected those nations that were meant to be the beneficiary of these organizations.

However, use of while in Choices B and D seems to suggest simultaneous action. Usage of while seems to convey that the two organizations have struggled to meet the expectations of certain rich nations and neglected the intended beneficiaries at the same time. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.

Hence, to clearly present the contrast with no room for any ambiguity, use of but is appropriate in this official sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 15:28
adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts GMATNinja mikemcgarry
can any one please explain clearly the contrast in (A)?



Hello adkikani /Arpit,

I would be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

Read the sentence very carefully. Right in the beginning, it presents the reason why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created.

So the real beneficiaries of these two organizations should be the developing countries. But that is not the case.

These two organizations have struggled to keep certain rich nations happy and neglected the real beneficiaries.

However, it should be the other way round.

The two organizations have struggled to do what they are not meant to do but have neglected the real beneficiaries.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2018, 05:12
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(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected - Correct.

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - No proper antecedent to 'that'

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of - Same as B

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - Same as B

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting - Parallelism error

Answer: A
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2018, 14:55
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Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2018, 07:34
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svanbergh13 wrote:
Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.



Hello svanbergh13,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

The sentence starts with the purpose why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created. They were created to reduce poverty and to stabilize foreign currency markets. Now, these financial institutions struggled to meet the expectation of their major shareholders that comprised may rich nations. But they neglected their real beneficiaries in the developing world.

So the sentence intends to project that these institutions did what they were not meant to do but neglected to do what they were actually meant to do. The contrast brings out the irony presented in the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2018, 08:24
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svanbergh13 wrote:
If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast.

Hi svanbergh13, this is indeed the intended meaning and I can understand why the word struggled is creating a confusion here.

Here, struggled is used in the sense of strove (past tense of strive). So, replace struggled with strove, and the sentence would make sense.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2018, 09:06
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PP777 wrote:
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected
B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of
D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of
E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting


Choice E- two ideally parallel entities Struggled and Neglecting are obviously not parallel.WRONG.
Choice D- usage of past perfect 'had to struggle' indicated that it struggled first then did something else, which is missing.WRONG.
Choice C- Wrong modifier usage 'Shareholders' expectation- a group company...' nonsensical. WRONG.
Choice-B- Again parallelism seems off- struggled and neglecting. WRONG IMO.
Choice A- Looks the best bet. Please enlighten me folks. But meaning wise usage of But is confusing me.

Kindly help! :-) :(
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2018, 12:52
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Here is my take on this question & I too have a doubt. May be some good scorers can shed some light. gmatexam, abhimahna

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected (The only confusion I have in this is the use of two "-" then But. Based on my understanding the structure of the sentence seems to be this: Verb-ed modifier, IC, but IC. Now the confusion is can - replace a comma??. Other then this confusion everything else in this options is correct)

B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of (Wrong because I believe the use of they here is redundant. For example its better to say: John and katie have struggled to meet the expectations VS John & Katie have struggled as they try to meet the expectations) Also that of at the end of this option does not seems correct because it almost seems as per this option that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of shareholders while neglecting the expectations of their beneficiaries. Whereas the real meaning is that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of their shareholders and neglected the real beneficiaries for which these two identities were created in the first place. I am not so clear about the parallelism)

C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)

D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of ( Wrong because we can not say the world bank and IMF(International world bank) have had to struggle. I am positive that the use of have+ had is not correct- But if someone can confirm this I will appreciate it)

E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2018, 07:44
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Hello Rocket7,
Please find my comments in red below.

Here is my take on this question & I too have a doubt. May be some good scorers can shed some light. gmatexam, abhimahna

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected (The only confusion I have in this is the use of two "-" then But. Based on my understanding the structure of the sentence seems to be this: Verb-ed modifier, IC, but IC. Now the confusion is can - replace a comma??. Other then this confusion everything else in this options is correct)
--Yes we can use "-" instead of a ",". The only difference is that "-" is stronger than ",".

B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of (Wrong because I believe the use of they here is redundant. For example its better to say: John and katie have struggled to meet the expectations VS John & Katie have struggled as they try to meet the expectations) Also that of at the end of this option does not seems correct because it almost seems as per this option that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of shareholders while neglecting the expectations of their beneficiaries. Whereas the real meaning is that WB & IMF have struggled to meet the expectations of their shareholders and neglected the real beneficiaries for which these two identities were created in the first place. I am not so clear about the parallelism)
--Your analysis is correct

C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)
--I am not sure of what noun+ noun modifier but your analysis of "expectations" is spot on. Also, the usage of "that" in the end is wrong.

D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of ( Wrong because we can not say the world bank and IMF(International world bank) have had to struggle. I am positive that the use of have+ had is not correct- But if someone can confirm this I will appreciate it)
--Yes "have had" is wrongly used here

E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting (Wrong because A noun +noun modifier does not have any identity to modify. expectations can not be a group. Also the noun + noun modifier here is: "a group(noun) + comprising many of the world's rich nations (Verb-ing modifier)
--Again I am not sure of noun + noun modifier and again your analysis of "expectations" is spot on. Also if you have a look at "and neglecting" at the end, the usage is incorrect. We need a "but" to show contrast. Also usage of present continuous is wrong (neglecting) because in order to maintain parallelism (struggled ..... neglected ...) we need simple past tense.

I hope that helps a bit!
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2018, 08:14
PP777 wrote:
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics,continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.


I solved this using the concept of modifiers & POE, "major shareholders" has to be "a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations", so, C & E are out. It's A, B or E.

A. continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders— a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected - Remains. Correct.

B. continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - Incorrect. "they, "thier", "that of" and "verb+ing" too much going on here.

C. continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of - Incorrect as explained above.

D. had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - "had to", verb+ing, "that of" too much going on here.

E. struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting - Incorrect as explained above.

Answer: (A).
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency   [#permalink] 25 Apr 2018, 08:14

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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency

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