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# Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the

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Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2013, 09:48
8
20
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

36% (02:33) correct 64% (02:39) wrong based on 1394 sessions

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Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the three most popular combinations --
1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of all four-digit passwords. The researchers
also found that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in
popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest. Also quite common are
combinations in which the first two digits are between 01 and 12 and the last two are between 01
and 31.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(A) The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981
(B) The password 0123 will most probably be more common than 2331
(C) If a password was to be selected from a random list of 100 four digit passwords, there is a very high possibility that it will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
(D) One out of three four digit passwords will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
(E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21

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16 Apr 2013, 10:31
5
1
Let’s first segregate the facts provided in the Statements
1. 1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of all four-digit passwords.
2. 19_ _ ranks above 80th Percentile in popularity and upper 1900 most popular
3. First two digit between 01 and 12 and last two between 01 and 31 also quite common

Only point 2 says something about comparison between two passwords.Also we should keep in mind that we shouldn’t assume anything when dealing with possibilities and percentages.
(A) The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981
This is clear from point 2 that those in upper 1900 are more popular than those in lower 1900.hence A is correct answer
(B) The password 0123 will most probably be more common than 2331
Only point 2 says about comparison between two and that relates only to number starting with 19.
So this can’t be the answer.

(C) If a password was to be selected from a random list of 100 four digit passwords, there is a very high possibility that it will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
Its not very clear that what number will be the high possibility.

(D) One out of three four digit passwords will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
Again this can’t be taken as a fact.

(E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21
Nothing is said about passwords starting with 21 so we can’t assume anything here.
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16 Apr 2013, 13:30
Archit143 wrote:
carcass wrote:
Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the three most popular combinations --
1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of all four-digit passwords. The researchers
also found that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in
popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest. Also quite common are
combinations in which the first two digits are between 01 and 12 and the last two are between 01
and 31.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(A) The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981
(B) The password 0123 will most probably be more common than 2331
(C) If a password was to be selected from a random list of 100 four digit passwords, there is a very high possibility that it will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
(D) One out of three four digit passwords will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
(E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21

Hi Carcass
I think A must be the answer was stuck between A nad E, but than we know nthn about 21 so I eliminated E....i think the question is sub 600...wat do u say...

Archit

No I disagree becasue rarely you are stuck in choices in a sub 600 level question.

But the purpose of this huge game is not to care about the level of the question but to solve it in the best manner and with the most efficient strategy you can

A is the OA
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16 Apr 2013, 23:02
2
the premise says :
1)The researchers also found that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in popularity,
2 with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest.
3Also quite common are combinations in which the first two digits are between 01 and 12 and the last two are between 01 and 31.

now if we look at A :The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981
A defies premise 3
also premise 2 does not say that every upper 1900s coming in the highest.

what is the source of this question ?
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13 Jan 2014, 03:38
I didn't even go for other options after looking at A.Though that is not a good thing to do on the gmat,I was pretty sure it was A,after I consulted the portion "that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest" once again.
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13 Jan 2014, 03:49
cssk wrote:
B seems ok with me. But can someone explain why B is wrong?

I think B is wrong because the last sentence says ]the first two digits are between 01 and 12.This probably implies 01 and 12 are not included so we cannot conclude anything about passwords starting from 01 eg. 0123.
The same goes for 2331. Refer last two are between 01 and 31. not including 31.

Another reason could be that the statement is silent about what password combination is more common when it starts with digits between 01 and 12 and ends with digits between 01 and 31.There is no comparison involved.
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Re: Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2014, 07:09
2
fact 1. 1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of all four-digit passwords.

fact2. every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in
popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest.

fact3. Also quite common are combinations in which the first two digits are between 01 and 12 and the last two are between 01
and 31.

total distinct 4 digit passwords that could be formed are - 10000.....but may be all are not in use where as some are repeated.... eg 1234....

If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(A) The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981...correct ......see fact 2..
(B) The password 0123 will most probably be more common than 2331 .....cannot be concluded..we could have said that for 0223 and 2331...... see fact 3
(C) If a password was to be selected from a random list of 100 four digit passwords, there is a very high possibility that it will be 1234, 1111, or 0000...its a 20 % possibility.... can't call it very high ... see fact 1
(D) One out of three four digit passwords will be 1234, 1111, or 0000 ....incorrect... one out of 05 will be.... that is 20%... see fact 1
(E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21..............can't say....nowhere inferred see fact 2.....
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31 Dec 2015, 09:39
Quote:
How are you deciding 1981 comes under "upper" category. Can't the upper category start from 1982?

I think, if nothing is specifically mentioned, above 1950 should be considered as upper 1900, isn't it?

Thanks
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27 Jul 2016, 09:50
Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the three most popular combinations -- 1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of all four-digit passwords. The researchers also found that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest. Also quite common are combinations in which the first two digits are between 01 and 12 and the last two are between 01 and 31.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

A) The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981
This can definitely be proved by “with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest”.

B) The password 0123 will most probably be more common than 2331
There is no information provided for the passwords starting with 21, so we cannot compare.

C) If a password was to be selected from a random list of 100 four digit passwords, there is a very high possibility that it will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of ALL. 20% doesn’t mean VERY HIGH. Also the total number of passwords is not given. So scaling down to 100 and then speaking about VERY HIGH possibility cannot be proved.

D) One out of three four digit passwords will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
1/3 is 33%. But FACT says only 20%.

E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21
There is no information provided for the passwords starting with 21. Hence no comparison is possible.
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26 Aug 2016, 03:03
Dear all ..
I have a small concern here . From the premises , it is given that the password starting with 19 have probability of 80% . That
means it has the highest probability when compared with 12 right ..
So how come the option E go wrong ... plz clarify this .. Thanks !!
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26 Aug 2016, 03:12
karnaidu wrote:
Dear all ..
I have a small concern here . From the premises , it is given that the password starting with 19 have probability of 80% . That
means it has the highest probability when compared with 12 right ..
So how come the option E go wrong ... plz clarify this .. Thanks !!

E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21

This is a must be true question, in which correct answer choice should be proved with given information in the argument.

Choice E compares "Passwords starting with 19" with "Passwords starting with 21". But argument did not give any clue about "Passwords starting with 21". Hence the comparison cannot be proven. this is why E is wrong.
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02 Nov 2016, 07:15
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karnaidu wrote:
Dear all ..
I have a small concern here . From the premises , it is given that the password starting with 19 have probability of 80% . That
means it has the highest probability when compared with 12 right ..
So how come the option E go wrong ... plz clarify this .. Thanks !!

Because of the answer choices, I must assume that "popularity is not mutually exclusive, so 80% popularity, does not mean that other numbers are no more popular.
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02 Nov 2016, 16:10
"with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest" basically states that upper 1900's will beat out any 21-- (and any other number), sooo not sure how E is incorrect, here. Nothing needs to be said about "21--" if another sub-group is listed as the absolute highest. Would love to see the source of this one.
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09 Nov 2016, 18:58
1
The researchers also found that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest.

What exactly we mean from the above statement. Could anybody please explain.

As per me, those in upper 1900s coming in the highest means number such as 1900, 1901, 1902 are more popular in comparison to numbers such as 1980 1981....
So how A is the answer.
I think A is the reverse of the above statement

Somebody, Please shed some light on the above mentioned issue.
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Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 21 Mar 2017, 23:39
Hi experts,
I get stuck between (A) and (E).
From the argument,option A is state directly.However,I feel that option E can be a strong contender as well.Using the information that nearly 20% of the passwords belongs to a list of three possible values--1234,1111,and 0000--and that nearly 80% of the passwords start with 19,I conclude that there is barely a room for passwords start with 21.Hence,those starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21.

Is my reasoning flawed?
Thanks

Originally posted by sleepynut on 21 Mar 2017, 00:48.
Last edited by sleepynut on 21 Mar 2017, 23:39, edited 1 time in total.
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21 Mar 2017, 20:11
Please, specify the source of the question!
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14 May 2017, 13:20
karnaidu wrote:
Dear all ..
I have a small concern here . From the premises , it is given that the password starting with 19 have probability of 80% . That
means it has the highest probability when compared with 12 right ..
So how come the option E go wrong ... plz clarify this .. Thanks !!

E is wrong because there is no information about the number of 21_ _
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11 Dec 2018, 21:27
HKD1710 wrote:
Researchers from a data analysis firm have found that the three most popular combinations -- 1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of all four-digit passwords. The researchers also found that every four-digit combination that starts with 19 ranks above the 80th percentile in popularity, with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest. Also quite common are combinations in which the first two digits are between 01 and 12 and the last two are between 01 and 31.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

A) The password 1922 will most likely be less popular than 1981
This can definitely be proved by “with those in the upper 1900s coming in the highest”.

B) The password 0123 will most probably be more common than 2331
There is no information provided for the passwords starting with 21, so we cannot compare.

C) If a password was to be selected from a random list of 100 four digit passwords, there is a very high possibility that it will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
1234, 1111, and 0000 -- account for close to 20 per cent of ALL. 20% doesn’t mean VERY HIGH. Also the total number of passwords is not given. So scaling down to 100 and then speaking about VERY HIGH possibility cannot be proved.

D) One out of three four digit passwords will be 1234, 1111, or 0000
1/3 is 33%. But FACT says only 20%.

E) Passwords starting with 19 are more popular than those starting with 21
There is no information provided for the passwords starting with 21. Hence no comparison is possible.

But for E the question is saying that 19XX passwords are in 80th percentile, so don't u think its more popular than 21XX
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23 Jan 2019, 20:40
OE--

Since this is an inference question, let’s look at each option and eliminate.
A. The correct answer. Since the numbers in the upper 1900s are more popular than the rest, 1981
has to be more popular than 1922
B. While you may think this is correct based on the last sentence of the argument, all that can be
inferred from the last sentence is that the password 0123 will be a popular one. We cannot
infer anything about how it would compare with the password 2331. There could be some
other characteristic of 2331 that makes it more popular than 0123
C. Not necessarily. All that the argument states is that these three comprise close to 20% of all
passwords, so there’s only a 20% chance that the chosen password will be one of these three.
D. In fact one out of five four digit passwords will be one of the three mentioned since the
chances are 20%
E. We know that passwords starting with 19 are popular but we don’t know anything about
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