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# Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro

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Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Sep 2018, 01:07
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 89
Page: 688

Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations

(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations

(C) that flourished at the same time those had

(D) flourishing at the same time as those did

(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

https://www.nytimes.com/1985/09/24/science/progress-reported-in-struggle-to-save-imperiled-ruins.html

FOR thousands of years, the Indus River has brought the blessing of water for crops and the curse of destructive floods. But today the Indus River poses a new danger to the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as those in the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates and the Nile.

Moisture and salt deposits threaten to erode and destroy the remarkable Mohenjo Daro archeological excavation that has fascinated and awed scientists and visitors since its discovery under a giant mound of earth more than 60 years ago.

Attachment:

01.jpg [ 118.51 KiB | Viewed 635 times ]

Attachment:

02.jpg [ 76.32 KiB | Viewed 636 times ]

Originally posted by go2venkat on 29 May 2004, 05:23.
Last edited by hazelnut on 20 Sep 2018, 01:07, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2010, 00:59
45
23
Hi Guys-- besides the much-discussed comparison, did you catch the idiom they're testing you on? See explanations below.

Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the
Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an
ancient civilization that flourished at the same time
as the civilizations
in the Nile Delta and the river
valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the
civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had
the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

A. The comparison uses the idiom same X.... as Y. X is 'an ancient civilization', and Y is a 'the civilizations'-- a logical comparison. And what about tenses? How do we know that the past simple (flourished) is needed? The time modifier for the verb is "at the same time"; now, 'at' indicates a specific point in the past.

Note on ellipses in comparisons: As long as the verb of comparison is in the same tense for both items of comparison, you do not need to repeat the verb (you can but don't need to).

Ex. I ate dinner at the same time as my brother ('did'-- optional).
Ex. I eat as much as my brother ate ('ate'-- not optional) when he was on the football team.

B. The only error in B is the past perfect, "had flourished", for there is no indication that the flourishing had taken place before some other point in the past.

C. NOTE: THERE IS NOT 'AS'! Once you start with the word 'same' you must complete the idiom with 'as'. Second, every time you run into the words 'that'/'those' (or any pronoun for that matter) you must ask yourself 'that'/'those' what? Here, 'those' indicates 'those civilizations,' BUT THE WORD 'CIVILIZATIONS' (plural) IS NOT IN THE SENTENCE. So there is no referent for the pronoun.

D. Same as C

E. Same as C

Hope this helped!

-Sarai

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##### General Discussion
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2005, 10:31
3
3
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization (that flourished at the same time as the civilizations) in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
- 'that' introduces an essential modifier for the 'civilization' preceding the phrase. the use of past tense would make the mohenjo civilization exists in the same time as the civilizations in the nile and tigris/euphrates had

(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
- 'past perfect' suggests the Mohenjo civilization died out before the civilizations in the Nilte delta and river valleys of tigris and euphrates

(C) that flourished at the same time those had
- 'those does not have a clear referent'

(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
- 'those' does not have a referent

(E) flourishing at the same time as those were
- 'those' does not have a referent

A it is.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2005, 17:56
yup OA is A
guys the confusion I had was ..
In A doesn't it seems that the floruishment of (ancient civilization) is compared with "the civilizations in the Nile delta"

i.e Action (floruished) is compared with Noun "the civilizations in the Nile delta"

but this issue is not there in B where the Verb are compared

Pls tell me what I am thinking wrong here
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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22 May 2006, 08:56
b14kumar wrote:
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

Regards,
Brajesh

I am going with "D".

"B" uses Past participle when it's not required. "C" uses incorrect idiom "same...those"; "same...as" is the correct idiom."A" compares flourishing of civilization with civilization, which is an "apples and oranges" comparison.

"A" would have been the best choice if the sentence read "Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations did in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

b14kumar, please provide OA and OE for the question.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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20 May 2007, 10:28
apache wrote:
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

For (A)

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations

(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations

wrong verb tense use => out

(C) that flourished at the same time those had

"at the same time" has to go with "as" => out

(D) flourishing at the same time as those did

not parallel => out

(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

not parallel => out
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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21 May 2007, 08:45
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
>.Tense problem
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
>. Incorrect construction
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
>.What is "those" referrig to?
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were
>same as D

I pick A
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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21 May 2007, 09:18
@ajisha

X died at the same time as Y

what is wrong with the sentence ??
why do u need

X died at the same time as did Y

isi'nt "did" assumed at the end ??

X died at the same time as Y did

just a thought !!
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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26 May 2007, 12:00
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had – Wrong construction.
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did - Use of “ing” is wrong.
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were - Use of “ing” is wrong.

C,D & E are eliminated

left with A & B

B - can be eliminated as we the sentence already says "....the site of an ancient civilization ...." so why do we need to qualify it again with "had"

Hence IMO A is the answer.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2007, 10:42
2
vineetgupta wrote:
dwivedys wrote:
I really saw no problem in A - but now that you guys mention it, it does seem as if it's missing the DID.

In most questions,'did' and 'do' are omitted in the second part of the question...another example is the 'meat of livestock' question posted recently...that also misses the 'do' in the right choice.

But I think,this is done to ensure brevity although the comparison does get altered...the only way out is to search other errors in such questions.

The same thought about the missing DID occured to me when I was practicising some other SC questions today. This question has been bothering me for days now.

God!! How I hate English. Would it have killed the testers to put a DID there?

Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates DID.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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06 May 2008, 08:11
Classic question. A case of ellipsis.

Duane doesn't like her but I do (like her).
I can't swim very well but Nadira can (swim very well).
Janet is British but Juan isn't (British).
They didn't go to the cinema but we did (do go to the Cinema).
Sandra was worried about the test but Giorgio wasn't (worried about the test).
Rafal went to school today but Liang didn't (go to school today).
..the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as (did) the civilizations in the Nile delta and (did) the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
Words in italics can be eliminated without changing the meaning.

B can be ruled out as there is no need of 'had'. (there is no time difference here)
A wins.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2013, 04:41
1
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of Tigris and Euphrates.

a. that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
b. that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
c. that flourished at the same time those had
d. flourishing at the same time as those did
e. flourishing at the same time as those were

Just one query for option d,e- is it wrong to use present participle (flourishing) for something in happened in past or we can go ahead use that
whether D will be correct if i say:

flourishing at the same time as the civilizations

Waiting for your valuable replies
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2013, 06:58
go2venkat wrote:
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

Happy to help

We have two issues here.
1.
We are comparing the nouns, not verbs- By this I mean we are comparing the Mohenjo-Daro civilization and other civilizations. By this having a verb form like as those did in option D is ruled out.

2. we are coparing nouns in that we are comparing a singular noun Mohenjo-Daro civilization and plural noun other civilizations . The rule in MGMAT clearly states that in such type of cases the noun (in this case civilizations) has to be repeated.

We are now left with answer choice A

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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2013, 07:17
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

I think there are 2 things involved in it....

1. 1st action is threaten, 2nd action is flourished ....but in order to use PAST PERFECT something would have occurred in the PAST due to which the later happened. Since nothing happened in PAST hence simple PAST TENSE 'flourished' will be used....If you go with it A is the answer

2. As is used to compare only clauses and not nouns but choice A compares a clause(that flourished) to a noun(the civilizations). This way B is the right choice.

So answer should be F Neither of them is correct..
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2013, 06:27
3
2
gmatter0913 wrote:
I have the same doubt regarding this question.

The OA is A, but I am not convinced.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations

It has to be:

(A) that flourished at the same time as did the civilizations

or Am I missing any grammar rule??

if this was the option then also it is not wrong:
(A) that flourished at the same time as did the civilizations

we can omit the verbs when the following condition are met:
1)we should have parallel construction involving verbs
2)verbs of both (or all if more than 2 structures are parallel) are exactly the same (in the same tense including)
3)omitting verb doesn't create ambiguity.

if above condition satisfy then we can omit the verb in ALL BUT the first.

coming to this question:
we have 2 parallel structure:
the site of an ancient civilization flourished
at the same time as
the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys flourished.
or
DID the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys

Now we can see all three condition are meeting.
so we can omit verb from 2nd parallel structure.
hope this much is clear.

similar simple example:
francis ran faster than xavier ran.
francis ran faster than xavier..
francis ran faster than did xavier.
francis ran faster than xavier did.

all the above 4 sentences are correct only thing is that 2 nd sentence is best

take another example when after removing verb sentence becomes ambiguous
the tycoon supported Jones
more than
anyone else supported jones.

first 2 conditions are satisfied ...lets remove the verb and check for ambiguity thing.

the tycoon supported Jones more than anyone else in the industry.

now here it is ambiguous.
how?
there can be 2 meanings.
1)the tycoon supported jones more than the tycoon supported anyone else
2)the tycoon supported jones more than anyone else supported jones.

now under these cases you are not going to OMIT the verbs.

hope it helps
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2014, 15:22
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations

A Vs. B:
I agree that B is past perfect, but I can't agree with choice A without having it modified as below. Any thoughts?

the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations did/flourished in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2014, 08:40
go2venkat wrote:
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

If we break the default sentence into clauses

1) Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, (ic)
2) the site of an ancient civilization (DC)
3) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. (DC)

The verb for Site is missing

How to decide whether to break the sentence as below? Or as stated above

1) Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization (IC)
2) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. (DC)
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2014, 05:36
1
1
'As' is indeed followed by a clause. The subject and verb of the clause are:

subject is: the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates
verb is: did

the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates did

The verb is implied because it is in ellipsis.

Also, please note that 'As' need not be followed by a clause always. 'As' can be used as a conjunction or as a preposition.
If we use 'As' as a preposition, then you don't need to follow it with a clause. (this sentence itself is an example)

Ex: I think of you as my friend.
Ex: As a child, I always wanted to be a pilot.
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2016, 14:15
go2venkat wrote:
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.

(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were

In C, D, and E, there is a pronoun ''those''. Here, those is plural. ''those' is used to refer 'ancient civilization', but 'ancient civilization' is singular. So, i've to scrutinize something, which is plural. Here, "the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates" is blocked off by COMMA, right?
My question is: should I look for plural noun out of THAT COMMA (e.g., Salt deposits and moisture threaten.......,?

also, 'Salt deposits and moisture' is what? is it the subject?
Thanks...
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Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2016, 13:21
SPLIT1) PRONOUN AGREEMENT: "THOSE" DOES NOT HAVE A CLEAR ANTECEDENT. AN ANCIENT CIVILIZATION IS SINGULAR. C,D AND E ARE OUT.

SPLIT2) VERB PAST PERFECT VS VERB SIMPLE PAST. PAST PERFECT IS REQUIRED IF 1) PAST TENSE AND 2) THERE WERE DIFFERENT TIMELINES, SOMETHING HAPPENED BEFORE SOMETHING ELSE. B IS OUT.

SPLIT3) FLOURISHING IMPLIES THAT IS STILL HAPPENING, THIS IS WRONG BECAUSE WE WANT TO STICK TO THE PAST AND ALSO SOMETHING DONE. D AND E ARE OUT.
Re: Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro &nbs [#permalink] 15 Oct 2016, 13:21

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