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Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most

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Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2012, 22:48
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Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (01:46) correct 42% (01:46) wrong based on 756 sessions

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Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most attractive males of a species, defined as those with the highest quality physical traits that have no Darwinian survival value, will draw the most female mates. The resulting male offspring will inherit that attractiveness and themselves have more children as a result, thus ensuring widespread dissemination of the grandparents’ genes. Recently, however, scientists have found that the sons of “high quality” male flycatchers failed to inherit the father’s mating status. Further, the most attractive males were so busy mating that they neglected their offspring; as a result, the sons of homelier birds, who took better care of their offspring, had more success at propagating the species.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles in the scientist’s argument?

(A) The first is the conclusion of a theory disputed by the scientist; the second is the scientist’s new contention based upon the latest evidence.

(B) The first is a premise of a long-held biological theory; the second is an example of how this theory works.

(C) The first is an explanation of how a biological theory is thought to work; the second is an example of research results that do not support this theory.

(D) The first is an example of a theory that used to be prevalent; the second is the new theory that is now considered predominant by scientists.

(E) The first introduces a long-held theory that the scientist is going to disprove; the second is the scientist’s new theory to replace the one she disproved.

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 27 Aug 2017, 00:57, edited 3 times in total.
proper format

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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2012, 23:40
I was confused between A and C as well. Ended up picking C primarily because the second statement in bold doesn't sound like a contention/conclusion. I believe that the conclusion is unstated in this argument. Anyways, I looked up online and found this explanation on a random blog, not sure whether this is the OE though.

Quote:
The first two sentences of the argument address the currently-held theory that
certain physical features that serve only to indicate "attractiveness" have
developed in order to help those males distribute their own genes more widely.
For example, a male peacock's plume of tailfeathers does not actively help him to
survive; the theory holds that it helps him to procreate by attracting females. The
first boldface portion explains to us how this theory works.

The final two sentences of the argument introduce information that contradicts
this theory. In this particular species of bird, the homelier birds are better at
passing on their genes than the attractive birds. The second boldface portion
provides an example of the specific research results that contradict the theory.

(A) The first bold statement is not a conclusion; it is an explanation of how the
theory works. The second bold statement is not a contention (or conclusion); it
simply presents new evidence and allows the reader to draw a conclusion.

(B) The two bold statements address opposite sides of the argument, but this
choice says that the second statement supports the theory advanced by the first
statement.

C) CORRECT. The first bold statement explains how the theory is thought to
work and the second bold statement presents research results that contradict this
theory.

(D) Nothing in the argument indicates that the long-held theory discussed in the
first two sentences is not still prevalent. Indeed, the research that contradicts the
theory was only discovered "recently." In addition, the second bold statement
does not introduce a new theory; it simply presents research results that
contradict the original theory.

(E) The scientist does not completely disprove the long-held theory; she merely
presents one piece of data that does not support the theory. In addition, the
second bold statement does not introduce a new theory; it simply presents
research results that contradict the original theory.

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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2012, 03:53
I thought its straight away C. moreover I was down to C because this options says the second part "example" which is true ( "the sons of homelier birds, who took better care of their offspring, had more success at propagating the species" is an example/evidence in support of new finding or in opposition of the first theory).

The statement itself is not a contention rather a fact that scientists noticed and presented as an example.

The first bold face is li'l tricky if its a conclusion or an explanation.
"The resulting male offspring will inherit that attractiveness and themselves have more children as a result" - This statement is again a fact which scientist noticed earlier. And a fact can never be a claim/conclusion, hence it is an explanation (by POE)

HTH

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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2012, 02:44
How long do you spend for this question? I spend more than 3 minutes. 2 minute to understand the argument, 1 minute to analyse answer choices. Finally, I get it wrong.

argument is too complex.

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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2012, 05:38
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This One is a Clear C Let me tell you why.
IS it said anywhere that the secong part is the conclusion ? or that it is the final argument that scientists have ? Are you sure that Sons of Sexy men dont have much mating option ? No. It never says that.
All it says is ( first part ) a long hend theory. Period ! dont think blah and blah !
Second part An experiment which showed contrary results. It doesnt say that it was the last experiment or that 9999 experiments were considered and all gave this result. 9998 might still have confirmed that sons of sexy men get more mating options.
So second is just an example.

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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2012, 05:54
I was stuck betw C & E. Finally went with C. Took around 2.14 Mins. The second part in option E is not correct.
Before going to options I just pre thought about the bold faces. 1st one is a general scientific observation and the second one contradicts the 1st one and provides a new situation/explanation.
Then i looked in options to match my pre-thinking. I need to cut the timing.

Any suggestion from experts!!!
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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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Expert's post
The first bold-faced sentence is a prediction based on evolutionary biology.

The second bold-faced part, which is based on the results of scientist's research, call into question the prediction of the first bold-faced sentence.

Therefore (C) fits best.

Answer (A) does not work because the second bold-faced part is not 'the scientist's contention.' Rather, the second bold-faced part describes research findings.
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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2015, 19:58
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Expert's post
The first two sentences of the argument address the currently-held theory that
certain physical features that serve only to indicate "attractiveness" have
developed in order to help those males distribute their own genes more widely.
For example, a male peacock's plume of tailfeathers does not actively help him to
survive; the theory holds that it helps him to procreate by attracting females. The
first boldface portion explains to us how this theory works.
The final two sentences of the argument introduce information that contradicts
this theory. In this particular species of bird, the homelier birds are better at
passing on their genes than the attractive birds. The second boldface portion
provides an example of the specific research results that contradict the theory.

(A) The first bold statement is not a conclusion; it is an explanation of how the
theory works. The second bold statement is not a contention (or conclusion); it
simply presents new evidence and allows the reader to draw a conclusion.

(B) The two bold statements address opposite sides of the argument, but this
choice says that the second statement supports the theory advanced by the first
statement.

(C) CORRECT. The first bold statement explains how the theory is thought to
work and the second bold statement presents research results that contradict this
theory.

(D) Nothing in the argument indicates that the long-held theory discussed in the
first two sentences is not still prevalent. Indeed, the research that contradicts the
theory was only discovered "recently." In addition, the second bold statement
does not introduce a new theory; it simply presents research results that
contradict the original theory.

(E) The scientist does not completely disprove the long-held theory; she merely
presents one piece of data that does not support the theory. In addition, the
second bold statement does not introduce a new theory; it simply presents
research results that contradict the original theory.
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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2017, 18:18
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Re: Scientist: Evolutionary biology has long held that the most   [#permalink] 17 May 2017, 18:18
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