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Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress,

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Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2020, 08:42
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Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 18, Date: 09-Apr-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress, their discipline requires freedom from ideological and geographic boundaries, including the freedom to share new scientific knowledge with scientists throughout the world. In the twentieth century, however, increasingly close links between science and national life undermined these ideals. Although the connection facilitated large and expensive projects, such as the particle accelerator program, that would have been difficult to fund through private sources, it also channeled the direction of scientific research increasingly toward national security (military defense).

For example, scientists in the post-1917 Soviet Union found themselves in an ambiguous position. While the government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists. A strong nationalistic emphasis on science led at times to the dismissal of all non-Russian scientific work as irrelevant to Soviet science. A 1973 article in Literatunaya Gazeta, a Soviet publication, insisted: “World science is based upon national schools, so the weakening of one or another national school inevitably leads to stagnation in the development of world science.” According to the Soviet regime, socialist science was to be consistent with, and in fact grow out of, the MarxistLeninist political ideology. Toward this end, some scientific theories or fields, such as relativity and genetics, were abolished. Where scientific work conflicted with political criteria, the work was often disrupted. During the Stalinist purges of the 1930s, many Soviet scientists simply disappeared. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists who were part of the refusenik movement lost their jobs and were barred from access to scientific resources. Nazi Germany during the 1930s and, more recently, Argentina imposed strikingly similar, though briefer, constraints on scientific research.

1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:

(A) examine the events leading up to the suppression of the Soviet refusenik movement of the 1970s.
(B) define and dispel the notion of a national science as promulgated by the post-revolution Soviet regime.
(C) describe specific attempts by the modern Soviet regime to suppress scientific freedom.
(D) examine the major twentieth-century challenges to the normative assumption that science requires freedom and that it is inherently international.
(E) point out the similarities and distinctions between scientific freedom and scientific internationalism in the context of the Soviet Union.


2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution?

(A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal.
(B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.
(C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact.
(D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries.
(E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied.


3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?

(A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security.
(B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction.
(C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another.
(D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community.
(E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding.


4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to

(A) illustrate the general sentiment among members of the international scientific community during the time period.
(B) support the point that only those notions about science that conformed to the Marxist-Leninist ideal were sanctioned by the Soviet government.
(C) show the disparity of views within the Soviet intellectual community regarding the proper role of science.
(D) underscore the Soviet emphasis on the notion of a national science.
(E) support the author’s assertion that the Marxist-Leninist impact on Soviet scientific freedom continued through the decade of the 1970s.


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New post 10 Apr 2020, 10:21
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BlueBook Thank you for your kind words. I am someone who is weak in verbal and got a 40% in RCs in GMAT. (also posted my esr in one of the forums). Last month I have been just solving 2 RCs everyday, and it has helped me improve accuracy. Plus my usual timings to read the passage has come down to around 2:30 min for short passages and 4 min for the longer ones. Honestly, practice is the only way to get better, and if I can do it, anyone can.
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New post 09 Apr 2020, 11:52
1.) D as first para talks about scientific freedom and its limitations
2.) B as 'government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists'
3.) B as 'however, increasingly close links between science and national life undermined these ideals.'
4.) B as the context of the line support the point.
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New post 09 Apr 2020, 12:15
1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:

(A) examine the events leading up to the suppression of the Soviet refusenik movement of the 1970s.
(B) define and dispel the notion of a national science as promulgated by the post-revolution Soviet regime.
(C) describe specific attempts by the modern Soviet regime to suppress scientific freedom.
(D) examine the major twentieth-century challenges to the normative assumption that science requires freedom and that it is inherently international.
(E) point out the similarities and distinctions between scientific freedom and scientific internationalism in the context of the Soviet Union.

The first line of the passage asserts scientific world requires freedom from ideological and geographic boundaries and has to share knowledge with colleagues from countries all over the world. Then it was described how govt disrupted this procedure from time to time.


2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution?

(A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal.
(B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.
(C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact.
(D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries.
(E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied.
...an ambiguous position. While the government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists.

3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?

(A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security. > just one example is given, not a general statement
(B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction.
(C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another. >not mentioned how scientists can communicate.
(D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community. > no recommendation such as this one were made.
(E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding.> no such comparison found.

4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to

(A) illustrate the general sentiment among members of the international scientific community during the time period.
(B) support the point that only those notions about science that conformed to the Marxist-Leninist ideal were sanctioned by the Soviet government.
(C) show the disparity of views within the Soviet intellectual community regarding the proper role of science.
(D) underscore the Soviet emphasis on the notion of a national science.
(E) support the author’s assertion that the Marxist-Leninist impact on Soviet scientific freedom continued through the decade of the 1970s.
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Re: Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2020, 13:24
1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:
Analysis: The first sentence of the passage lays out a claim by scientists. However, the rest of the paragraph goes on to addresses challenges to this claim and specific examples referring to the Soviet Union are used in the 2nd paragraph. The answer that directly corresponds with this is choice D).

2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution
A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal. Funding has not been mentioned as the bone of contention between scientists and the government.
B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted. This is explained in the line: ‘While the government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists. ‘
C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact. The requirement to direct research entirely towards military advancement has not been mentioned in the passage.
D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries. This is a wrong interpretation of the ambiguous position. Besides, I would argue that discussions with non-Soviet scientists were not prohibited but rather deemed irrelevant and quickly dsimissed.
E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied. This has not been mentioned in the passage.

3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?
A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security. There is no direct link between these two. What the paragraph talks about is the connection between scientific research and national ideals and how this connection undermined the ability of scientists to freely share scientific knowledge.
B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction. This choice is wrong due to the use of strong language.
C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another. The ability for scientists to communicate cannot be inferred or any conclusion arrived at from this paragraph.
D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community.
E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding. Private funding has not been discussed in this paragraph.

4) The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to
The author quotes the article to bring out the thoughts of scientists within the Soviet Union at the time. The scientists were against the stifling of their work. Their work was mainly being stifled because it went against the Marxist Leninist political ideology that was the national ideology of the Soviet Union. The choice that closely conforms to this is choice B)
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New post 09 Apr 2020, 20:19
1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:

(A) examine the events leading up to the suppression of the Soviet refusenik movement of the 1970s.
Not correct: second para talks about the situation present in Soviet to explain whether scientists had freedom, but not to examine the events that led to the suppression of any movement
(B) define and dispel the notion of a national science as promulgated by the post-revolution Soviet regime.
Not correct: again, in second para details are given to suggest that Soviet regime supported nationalistic emphasis, but not defined any notion of national science
(C) describe specific attempts by the modern Soviet regime to suppress scientific freedom.
not correct: passage talks about events from 1917s and 1970s. Again, this info is from only second para
(D) examine the major twentieth-century challenges to the normative assumption that science requires freedom and that it is inherently international.
correct: in the first para, long held view was discussed, and how this view has brought two contrasting developments - large projects and military research. In the second para, examples from Soviet, Nazi, and Argentina are given to explain that freedom was not given to the scientific community. The purpose of the second para is to explain the inherent nature of international collaboration in scientific research
(E) point out the similarities and distinctions between scientific freedom and scientific internationalism in the context of the Soviet Union.
not correct: passage talks about freedom to share and collaborate is required to flourish in scientific research, not about similarities and distinctions between freedom and sci int

2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution?

(A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal.
[i]not correct: passage says projects are funded generously

(B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.
not correct: no mention of striving towards sci advancements
(C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact.
not correct: not mention that research directed entirely toward military defence
(D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries.
correct: passage says 'encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists', so scientist were encouraged but discouraged to collaborate with scientists from other countries
(E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied.
not correct: no mention of areas of research

3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?

(A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security.
not correct: no link between particle-accelerator program and national security
(B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction.
not correct: no mention of restricted communication among sci colleagues
(C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another.
correct: first para says to flourish, freedom is required to share
(D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community.
not correct: no mention of de-emphasizing sci projects
(E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding.
not correct: no link between government funding and ideal of sci freedom

4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to

(A) illustrate the general sentiment among members of the international scientific community during the time period.
not correct: this quote is from Soviet publication and views from Soviet community, not from International sci community
(B) support the point that only those notions about science that conformed to the Marxist-Leninist ideal were sanctioned by the Soviet government.
not correct: passage says that projects that share Marxist-Leninist ideals were encouraged, not sanctioned
(C) show the disparity of views within the Soviet intellectual community regarding the proper role of science.
not correct: passage doesn't say that there was a disparity within the intellectual community
(D) underscore the Soviet emphasis on the notion of a national science.
not correct: the quote is opposite to the Soviet's notion of national science
(E) support the author’s assertion that the Marxist-Leninist impact on Soviet scientific freedom continued through the decade of the 1970s.
correct: passage says, according to the Soviet regime, socialist science was to be consistent with, and in fact grow out of, the MarxistLeninist political ideology. Toward this end, some scientific theories or fields, such as relativity and genetics, were abolished
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 01:42
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** Note - Before I start to answer these questions, in my opinion the questions were quite hard. I say that because the RC to read was quite easy, the author had a clear idea of what he wanted to say and did so in an articulate manner. However, the answer choices are so close that even while posting the answer I am not sure if they are correct. However, i have assumed that I am making the correct judgement, so here is my assessment of the questions. Hope you like the explanations.

1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:
(A) examine the events leading up to the suppression of the Soviet refusenik movement of the 1970s.
(B) define and dispel the notion of a national science as promulgated by the post-revolution Soviet regime.
(C) describe specific attempts by the modern Soviet regime to suppress scientific freedom.
(D) examine the major twentieth-century challenges to the normative assumption that science requires freedom and that it is inherently international.
(E) point out the similarities and distinctions between scientific freedom and scientific internationalism in the context of the Soviet Union.

Explanation of question 1:
Before we start lets make a quick summary of what we read. Basically the author is implying for science to grow, scientists need to transcend boundaries. Although some expensive projects linked to national interests might benefit, overall it helps for the scientific community to be global. He criticises Soviet Russia in the 30s and again in the 70s for this. Ok armed with this knowledge, lets start answering the questions -
A - Dont think it actually examining 'some' event which led to suppression. Out.
B - That is not what the author is intending in the passage. Out.
C - Pretty much all of IS about how the Soviets were BAD. This is one of the two very close choices, but if you look into D, you will understand why this scores higher than D.
D - Very close choice. Science DOES require freedom as explicitly stated in the first paragraph. However, I felt that since majority of the second paragraph has how Soviet Russia was bad, and it is not mentioned here at all, I feel this choice is too broad for my liking.
E - No this is definitely not the main idea.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution?
(A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal.
(B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.
(C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact.
(D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries.
(E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied.

Explanation of question 2:
Again in this question, lets zoom into choices B and D. But only one is correct.
B - Yes this looks good.
D - Ok I wont lie, this looks good too. However, there is a subtle problem with this. It will have an ambiguity, but not the ambiguity which is referred by the author. Clever choice but out.
B is our answer.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?
(A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security.
(B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction.
(C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another.
(D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community.
(E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding.

Explanation of question 3:
Again we see there we can very easily get down to two options, but choosing between them is tricky.
B - I think this can be inferred. How? i will try to show it. Passage says two things - 1)science prospers when scientists have freedom of communication with the world, 2) author says national interests takes precedence over total scientific achievements. So it can be inferred there will be significant RESTRICTIONS for scientists to communicate to the outside world. That is what this choice is essentially. I will keep this in.
E - I will be honest this is also inferable from the passage. But only one is the correct choice. But which one? Well lets assume both are inferable, and then choose the one which is stronger. My gut says go with B, simply because the point of the author is not the comparison (govt funding of science vs private funding). This is an inference question, so we are allowed to go out of the passage to infer.
My choice is B.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to
(A) illustrate the general sentiment among members of the international scientific community during the time period.
(B) support the point that only those notions about science that conformed to the Marxist-Leninist ideal were sanctioned by the Soviet government.
(C) show the disparity of views within the Soviet intellectual community regarding the proper role of science.
(D) underscore the Soviet emphasis on the notion of a national science.
(E) support the author’s assertion that the Marxist-Leninist impact on Soviet scientific freedom continued through the decade of the 1970s.

Explanation of question 4:
Again we are fighting with choosing between 2 options. These questions are tricky as I previously mentioned. Plus by this time I am mentally exhausted! Gmat verbal is about how we manage our mental fatigue, so lets keep going. One last question....
We can easily come down to choices C and D.
C - This choice looks close. However, I am not very happy with the usage of the word "disparity". Out.
D - The author is quoting from the Soviet publication to give an example and make his point stronger that there was massive influence of Soviet govt on scientific development in their land.
Answer: D
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 01:51
1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:

(A) examine the events leading up to the suppression of the Soviet refusenik movement of the 1970s.
(B) define and dispel the notion of a national science as promulgated by the post-revolution Soviet regime.
(C) describe specific attempts by the modern Soviet regime to suppress scientific freedom.
(D) examine the major twentieth-century challenges to the normative assumption that science requires freedom and that it is inherently international.
(E) point out the similarities and distinctions between scientific freedom and scientific internationalism in the context of the Soviet Union.

To determine the primary purpose of the passage, let us try to summarize the paragraphs individually. The first paragraph talks about difficulties faced by Science in the 20th century when their ideals were undermined. The second paragraphs presents examples to support this stance. Thus, option (D) perfectly fits our thinking and is the correct choice!



2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution?

(A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal.
(B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.
(C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact.
(D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries.
(E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied.

The second sentence of the second paragraph states that: "While the government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists."
Imposing restrictions equals taking away freedom. The Russians wanted scientific advancements but at the same time imposed restrictions. Only option (B) fits our reasoning.



3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?

(A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security.
(B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction.
(C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another.
(D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community.
(E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding.

The first paragraph states that science and national security have been so closely related that scientific ideals are undermined. One of these ideals is to freely propagate scientific learnings to others in the scientific community. If the ideals were undermined, it means that the communication is not free OR that communication is restricted. Option (B) fits the bill.
Now, let's try to determine why the other options are not correct.
Option (A) presents information that cannot be inferred from the paragraph. While the talks about government funding the particle accelerator experiment, it does not state the other use cases of this program.
Option (C) presents recycled language but omits a keyword - 'scientific'. Without free access to new scientific knowledge, we cannot be sure that scientisis will no longer be able to communicate with each other. They can still communicate - but maybe not about science!
What the government should or should not do is not stated in the passage. Thus, option (D) is out.
Option (D) states a comparison between public and private funding. No such comparison is made in the passage.


4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to

(A) illustrate the general sentiment among members of the international scientific community during the time period.
(B) support the point that only those notions about science that conformed to the Marxist-Leninist ideal were sanctioned by the Soviet government.
(C) show the disparity of views within the Soviet intellectual community regarding the proper role of science.
(D) underscore the Soviet emphasis on the notion of a national science.
(E) support the author’s assertion that the Marxist-Leninist impact on Soviet scientific freedom continued through the decade of the 1970s.

This quote is sandwiched between two relevant sentences.
Sentence 1: "A strong nationalistic emphasis on science led at times to the dismissal of all non-Russian scientific work as irrelevant to Soviet science."
Sentence 2: "According to the Soviet regime, socialist science was to be consistent with, and in fact grow out of, the MarxistLeninist political ideology."
Combining these two sentences, we can clearly infer option (B) as the correct choice.

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Re: Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2020, 04:18
1. C
2. B - as mentioned in the second para at the beginning: "While the government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists."
3. B
4.B
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 05:34
1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:

(A) examine the events leading up to the suppression of the Soviet refusenik movement of the 1970s.-Limited to Para 2 Soviet example. Wrong
(B) define and dispel the notion of a national science as promulgated by the post-revolution Soviet regime.-Limited to Para 2 Soviet example. Wrong
(C) describe specific attempts by the modern Soviet regime to suppress scientific freedom.-Limited to Para 2 Soviet example. Wrong
(D) examine the major twentieth-century challenges to the normative assumption that science requires freedom and that it is inherently international.-> Correct
(E) point out the similarities and distinctions between scientific freedom and scientific internationalism in the context of the Soviet Union.-Limited to Para 2 Soviet example. Wrong

2. Which of the following best characterizes the “ambiguous position” (Highlighted) in which Soviet scientists were placed during the decades that followed the Bolshevik Revolution?

(A) The Soviet government demanded that their research result in scientific progress, although funding was insufficient to accomplish this goal.
(B) They were exhorted to strive toward scientific advancements, while at the same time the freedoms necessary to make such advancements were restricted.-> correct
Explanation : Para 2 “…….. ambiguous position. While the government encouraged and generally supported scientific research, it simultaneously imposed significant restrictions on science and scientists”
(C) While they were required to direct research entirely toward military defense, most advancements in this field were being made by non-Soviet scientists with whom the Soviet scientists were prohibited contact.
(D) They were encouraged to collaborate with Soviet colleagues but were prohibited from any discourse with scientists from other countries.
(E) The Soviet government failed to identify those areas of research that it deemed most worthwhile, but punished those scientists with whose work it was not satisfied.


3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?

(A) Expensive research projects such as the particle-accelerator program apply technology that can also be applied toward projects relating to national security.
(B) Scientific knowledge had become so closely linked with national security that it could no longer be communicated to scientific colleagues without restriction.-> Correct
Explanation : Para 1 “…close links between science and national life undermined these ideals. ……….. channeled the direction of scientific research increasingly toward national security (military defense).
(C) Without free access to new scientific knowledge, scientists in different countries are less able to communicate with one another.
(D) Governments should de-emphasize scientific projects related to military defense and emphasize instead research that can be shared freely within the international scientific community.
(E) Government funding of scientific research undermines the ideal of scientific freedom to a greater extent than private funding.

4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to

(A) illustrate the general sentiment among members of the international scientific community during the time period.
(B) support the point that only those notions about science that conformed to the Marxist-Leninist ideal were sanctioned by the Soviet government.
(C) show the disparity of views within the Soviet intellectual community regarding the proper role of science.
(D) underscore the Soviet emphasis on the notion of a national science.-> Correct
Explanation: para2 “A strong nationalistic emphasis on science led at times to the dismissal of all non-Russian scientific work as irrelevant to Soviet science. ……. According to the Soviet regime, socialist science was to be consistent with, and in fact grow out of, the Marxist Leninist political ideology.”
(E) support the author’s assertion that the Marxist-Leninist impact on Soviet scientific freedom continued through the decade of the 1970s.
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 08:12
OAs of this RC are posted now, kindly let me know if you have any question.

1. C
2. B
3. B
4. D

This passage was also very tight ;) Once again excellent work by AnirudhaS, second here is SSandy066. To all other guys i would say you are the persons who can get maximum advantage of this project, just keep trying until you master this section.

Thanks.
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 09:18
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I have to say congrats to AnirudhaS. Your explanations are very interactive and dare I say, fun to read which is rare when it comes to GMAT. Plus you're right 90% of the time! Good stuff!! :thumbsup:
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 23:11
I am still not convince for Question 1 answer...kindly someone explain...
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 23:33
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SSandy066 I assume you are stuck between C and D. I think both are 'flawed' answers and both are 'partially' correct.
C is flawed because it has no mention of Soviet Russia in the first para, In fact in the second para it says for example- Soviets.. Also in the last line there is reference to Nazi Germany.
C has a lot going for itself as well. After reading the passage it felt like the author is trying to justify scientific accomplishments with respect to Soviet Russia as a key example.

D has its own flaws. There is no mention of any of the examples. In fact reference to the entire second para is missing.

SajjadAhmad can we have the OA for this please? Do you have a preference of D over C?
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New post 10 Apr 2020, 23:48
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SSandy066 wrote:
I am still not convince for Question 1 answer...kindly someone explain...


Official Explanation


1. The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to:

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Notice that, with the exception of the very last sentence, the passage is entirely concerned with describing Soviet attempts to suppress scientific freedom. In the order mentioned, the attempts include thwarting science’s ideals, emphasizing a national science, controlling scientific literature, and threatening and punishing renegade scientists. Choice (C) aptly expresses this overall concern.

Choice (D) is the runner-up. Admittedly, the passage does mention, in the final sentence, two other twentieth-century attempts to suppress scientific freedom. Had the passage continued by describing these two other attempts, (D) would probably have been the best answer choice. But since it doesn’t, (D) is a bit too broad.

Choice (A) distorts the author’s primary purpose. The author does not actually discuss any specific events that might have caused the suppression of the refusenik movement; rather, this historical phenomenon is mentioned simply as another example of the Soviet regime’s long-term pattern of suppression.

Choice (B) distorts the author’s perspective on the topic. Although the author does define the concept of national science, nowhere does the author attempt to dispel or disprove the concept.

Choice (E) distorts the author’s message and is too narrow. Although the author does imply that scientific freedom and scientific internationalism are related, the author makes no attempt to examine their differences.

The correct answer is (C).


Hope it helps
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New post 23 Apr 2020, 04:55
Can you provide the OE for the 3rd question? Thanks
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New post 23 Apr 2020, 07:01
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Official Explanation


3. Which of the following is most reasonably inferable from the passage’s first paragraph?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The first two sentences establish that the link between science and national life undermined scientists’ freedom to communicate with other scientists. The next sentence points to the channeling of scientific research toward protecting national security as a manifestation of that link. Notice the almost unavoidable inference here—that national security concerns were part of the “national life” that took precedence over scientific freedoms.

Choice (E) is the runner up. An argument can be made from the information in the first paragraph that government-funded research is more likely than privately-funded research to relate to matters affecting the national security (i.e., military defense).

However, this inference is hardly as unavoidable as the one that (B) provides, is it? To compete with (B), the inference would need additional supporting evidence.

Choice (A) is unsupported. The author implies no connection between the particle-accelerator program and national security.

Choice (C) is nonsensical. Ready access to new scientific knowledge would require ready communication among scientists—not the other way around.

Choice (D) is unsupported. The author neither states nor suggests which areas of scientific research should be emphasized.

The correct answer is (B).


Hope it helps
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New post 28 Apr 2020, 04:41
I am stuck with 4 one please tell me why it is not B because one generally quotes to support the next statement, like if we are writing a piece we quote it to support our next statement.

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New post 29 Apr 2020, 03:29
Anstiwari wrote:
I am stuck with 4 one please tell me why it is not B because one generally quotes to support the next statement, like if we are writing a piece we quote it to support our next statement.

Posted from my mobile device


Official Explanation


4. The author quotes an article from Literatunaya Gazeta (Lines in Bold) most probably to

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This part of the passage is concerned exclusively with pointing out evidence of the Soviet emphasis on a national science; given the content of the excerpt from Literatunaya Gazeta, you can reasonably infer that the author is quoting this article as one such piece of evidence.

Choice (A) is easy to rule out because it distorts the nature of the quoted article and runs contrary to the passage. The article illustrates the official Soviet position and possibly the sentiment among some members of the Soviet intellectual or scientific community. However, the article does not necessarily reflect the views of scientists from other countries.

Choice (C) is not likely to be the author’s purpose in quoting the article, because the author does not discuss disagreement and debate among Soviet intellectuals.

Choice (E) is a bit tempting because it might in fact be true and because it is indeed supported by the information in the passage. But the author gives no indication as to when the article was written or published; thus, the article itself lends no support to (E).

Choice (B) is the runner-up choice that helps make this question tougher than it would be otherwise. The quoted article does indeed reflect the Marxist-Leninist ideal (at least as interpreted and promulgated by the government) and may in fact have been published only because it was sanctioned (approved) by the Soviet government. However, since this conclusion would require speculation and since the quoted excerpt makes no mention of government approval or disapproval of certain scientific notions, it is not likely that (B) expresses the author’s purpose in quoting the article.

The correct answer is (D).

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Re: Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress,   [#permalink] 29 Apr 2020, 03:29

Scientists have long claimed that, in order to flourish and progress,

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