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Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the

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Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 361, Date : 30-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the advance of obesity. These genes are often identified through mouse models for obesity, such as a pure-breeding strain of obese mice called Rotund. The behavior of Rotund mice includes increased food consumption and body weight, and decreased body temperature and activity. When injected with blood from normal animals, Rotund mice exhibit a momentary decrease in food intake. This information suggests that a secreted factor that signals satiety exists, turning off the desire for food in normal animals when energy reserves in stock tissue are sufficient.

When the gene responsible for the Rotund behavior was identified, it was found to encode a protein secreted from adipocytes in normal mice. This protein was termed the rotund protein.

Injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice induces a decrease in food intake, an increase in body temperature, an increase in activity, and a decrease over several weeks in the ratio of energy stock tissue to skeletal muscle. Control injections lacking rotund protein did not produce these changes. Also, injection of rotund protein into normal mice does not alter weight or other parameters of mouse physiology, indicating that the weight loss in Rotund mice is not caused by toxicity of the protein to the animal.

Although the research on the rotund protein and on its effects on obesity is in its development phase, scientists hope that what they learn from these experiments with mice will shed some light on the ongoing research on human obesity.

Spoiler: :: OE
The word inferred indicates that this is an infer/imply/suggest question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase which of the following can be most strongly inferred. The subject of the question is Rotund proteins. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which is not supported by the passage. According to the passage, injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice induces a decrease in food intake, an increase in body temperature, an increase in activity, and a decrease over several weeks in the ratio of energy stock tissue to skeletal muscle. Control injections lacking rotund protein did not produce these changes. Also, injection of rotund protein into normal mice does not alter weight or other parameters of mouse physiology, indicating that the weight loss in Rotund mice is not caused by toxicity of the protein to the animal. Look for an answer that reflects these ideas.

Choice A: No. While the reference to that these genes are often identified through mouse models for obesity may make this choice seem appealing, the passage provides no such comparison between the proteins in mice and humans. It may be true that the proteins are similar since research on Rotund mice may shed some light on the ongoing research on human obesity, but such similarity cannot be supported by the text.

Choice B: No. This choice may seem appealing due to outside knowledge that obesity in humans may increase the risk of heart failure. However, this choice is outside knowledge. The passage provides no connection between heart failure and Rotund mice.

Choice C: Correct. This choice is supported by the text, since Injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice induces a decrease in food intake…skeletal muscle. If wild-type protein changes the behavior of Rotund mice, then it must be different from the protein that Rotund mice produce themselves.

Choice D: No. This choice may seem appealing, since the passage says the weight loss in Rotund mice is not caused by toxicity of the protein to the animal. However, the phrase does not have any toxic effects is too extreme to be supported by the text. The passage only eliminates one toxic effect, not all possible toxic effects.

Choice E: No. This choice may seem attractive because the passage says that research is in the development phase, but this choice is a memory trap. The passage provides no indication that the researchers have insufficient leeway.

The correct answer is choice C.

1. Which of the following can be most strongly inferred from the passage?

A. Humans have similar proteins to those of Rotund mice.
B. Rotund mice have heart failure problems.
C. Rotund proteins from wild-type mice and pure-breeding mice do not have the same effect.
D. Rotund protein does not have any toxic effects on the Rotund mice.
E. Researchers need more fiscal leeway with their important research on obesity.


Spoiler: :: OE
The phrase would most likely agree indicates that this is an infer/imply/suggest question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase which of the following statements. The subject of the question is the effects of the research on rotund proteins. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage, although the research on the rotund protein and on its effects on obesity is in its development phase, scientists hope that what they learn from these experiments with mice will shed some light on the ongoing research on human obesity.

Choice A: Correct. The author’s statements throughout the passage are tentative. Phrases such as appear to play a role and this information suggests, as well as that scientists hope…will shed some light show that the author may not believe that this research will necessarily be a complete solution.

Choice B: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to progress on human obesity. However, will make much progress is extreme language that is not supported by the text. The passage states that scientists hope...will shed some light, which indicates that progress is not assured.

Choice C: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to consumption and the emotional language obesity. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage does not indicate either any resistance to this research, or any backlash.

Choice D: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to some flaws in the design. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage states that research…is in the development phase, but a developmental phase does not indicate flaws.

Choice E: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to an experiment resulting in a change in rotund mouse behavior. However, this choice is a reversal. The injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice which induced a decrease in food intake is an external means of changing behavior.

The correct answer is choice A.

2. The author or the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

A. This study on rotund proteins, by itself, might not be enough to solve the human obesity problem.
B. Scientists will make much progress on human obesity due to their findings on rotund proteins.
C. The study is likely to result in a backlash from consumer groups and civil rights unions.
D. There are some flaws in the design of the experiment.
E. Rotund mice behavior is hard to change through external means.


Spoiler: :: OE
This is a retrieval question, as shown by the words All of the following…are true. The task of the question is indicated by the word All of the following…EXCEPT. The subject of the question is pure-breeding Rotund mice behavior. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject, and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which can be supported by the passage. According to the passage, the behavior of Rotund mice includes increased food consumption and body weight, and decreased body temperature and activity.

Choice A: No. This choice is supported by the statement in the passage regarding decreased body temperature.

Choice B: No. This choice is supported by the statement in the passage regarding increased food consumption.

Choice C: No. This choice is supported by the statement in the passage regarding decreased…activity.

Choice D: No. This choice is supported by the statement in the passage regarding increased…body weight.

Choice E: Correct. While it might be tempting due to outside knowledge to suppose that obese mice suffer from foot pain because obese people often do, this choice is outside knowledge. The connection between foot pain and obese mice is not supported by the text.

The correct answer is choice E.

3. All of the following regarding the pure-breeding Rotund mice behavior are true EXCEPT:

A. These mice tend to have colder bodies than non-obese Rotund mice are.
B. Daily food intake is higher than that of other mice.
C. The obese Rotund mice move around in their environment less than do other mice.
D. These pure-breeding mice tend to weigh more than do their wild-type counterparts.
E. Rotund mice experience more problems with foot pain generally associated with obesity.


Originally posted by srij13 on 29 Sep 2019, 10:56.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 08 Oct 2019, 03:20, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (860).
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Re: Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2019, 13:03
Can someone explain question 1 in this RC?

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Re: Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2019, 02:12
Shreshtha55 wrote:
Can someone explain question 1 in this RC?

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Official Explanation


1. Which of the following can be most strongly inferred from the passage?

Explanation

The word inferred indicates that this is an infer/imply/suggest question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase which of the following can be most strongly inferred. The subject of the question is Rotund proteins. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which is not supported by the passage. According to the passage, injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice induces a decrease in food intake, an increase in body temperature, an increase in activity, and a decrease over several weeks in the ratio of energy stock tissue to skeletal muscle. Control injections lacking rotund protein did not produce these changes. Also, injection of rotund protein into normal mice does not alter weight or other parameters of mouse physiology, indicating that the weight loss in Rotund mice is not caused by toxicity of the protein to the animal. Look for an answer that reflects these ideas.

Choice A: No. While the reference to that these genes are often identified through mouse models for obesity may make this choice seem appealing, the passage provides no such comparison between the proteins in mice and humans. It may be true that the proteins are similar since research on Rotund mice may shed some light on the ongoing research on human obesity, but such similarity cannot be supported by the text.

Choice B: No. This choice may seem appealing due to outside knowledge that obesity in humans may increase the risk of heart failure. However, this choice is outside knowledge. The passage provides no connection between heart failure and Rotund mice.

Choice C: Correct. This choice is supported by the text, since Injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice induces a decrease in food intake…skeletal muscle. If wild-type protein changes the behavior of Rotund mice, then it must be different from the protein that Rotund mice produce themselves.

Choice D: No. This choice may seem appealing, since the passage says the weight loss in Rotund mice is not caused by toxicity of the protein to the animal. However, the phrase does not have any toxic effects is too extreme to be supported by the text. The passage only eliminates one toxic effect, not all possible toxic effects.

Choice E: No. This choice may seem attractive because the passage says that research is in the development phase, but this choice is a memory trap. The passage provides no indication that the researchers have insufficient leeway.

The correct answer is choice C.


Hope it helps
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Re: Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2019, 08:21
Official Ans to Q2

The phrase would most likely agree indicates that this is an infer/imply/suggest question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase which of the following statements. The subject of the question is the effects of the research on rotund proteins. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage, although the research on the rotund protein and on its effects on obesity is in its development phase, scientists hope that what they learn from these experiments with mice will shed some light on the ongoing research on human obesity.

Choice A: Correct. The author’s statements throughout the passage are tentative. Phrases such as appear to play a role and this information suggests, as well as that scientists hope…will shed some light show that the author may not believe that this research will necessarily be a complete solution.

Choice B: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to progress on human obesity. However, will make much progress is extreme language that is not supported by the text. The passage states that scientists hope...will shed some light, which indicates that progress is not assured.

Choice C: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to consumption and the emotional language obesity. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage does not indicate either any resistance to this research, or any backlash.

Choice D: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to some flaws in the design. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage states that research…is in the development phase, but a developmental phase does not indicate flaws.

Choice E: No. This choice may seem appealing due to the reference to an experiment resulting in a change in rotund mouse behavior. However, this choice is a reversal. The injection of purified rotund protein from wild-type mice into Rotund mice which induced a decrease in food intake is an external means of changing behavior.

The correct answer is choice A.
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Re: Several genes have been acknowledged that appear to play a role in the   [#permalink] 08 Dec 2019, 08:21
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