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# Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build

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Director
Joined: 30 Jun 2008
Posts: 984
Since the 1930s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2008, 04:19
1
6
00:00

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

47% (01:08) correct 53% (01:18) wrong based on 314 sessions

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Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build  [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2013, 10:48
6
4
Hi akshaychaturvedi007

This question is quite tough. I just want to elaborate more. Hope it helps you.

Some theories:
(1) So X that Y --> correct idiom
(2) HAVING BEEN + P2 ==> perfect gerund
--> denotes a state or condition that no longer subsists at the time of speaking

Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
Wrong. Verb-ed + comma ==> modifies preceding noun "wings" correctly. BUT A is wrong because "them" refers to airplanes or wings? very ambiguous.
The structure of A is: "airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so X that Y passing over them......" ==> "them" is not clear.

(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
Correct. The blue part is absolute phrase modifier --> "them" only refers to the closest noun "wings" --> correct.

(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
Wrong. "smooth" and "perfect" are ADJECTIVES, but we need adverbs after verb "shaped" --> "smoothly" and "perfectly" are correct, NOT "smooth and perfect".

(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
Wrong. Same error as in A. "them" in non-underlined part refers to what? airplanes or wings?

(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so
Wrong. HAVING BEEN + shaped --> perfect gerund --> denotes a state or condition that no longer subsists at the time of speaking ==> Clearly changes meaning --> wrong.

Hope it helps.
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Manager
Joined: 22 Sep 2008
Posts: 117
Re: SC : Aircraft Wings  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2008, 04:29
1
so smooth and perfect is key.

I will with C , any takers for C?
VP
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Schools: Wharton (R2 - submitted); HBS (R2 - submitted); IIMA (admitted for 1 year PGPX)
Re: SC : Aircraft Wings  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2008, 04:37
3
amitdgr wrote:
Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

This is a complex question which has been discussed earlier also. You can search it on the forum.

The answer is B.

We need to repeat the word WINGS to clarify that it was the wings that the manufacturers were trying to smoothen and give a perfect shape to.

In A, shaped so smoothly and perfectly ends up modifying Aircraft manufacturers creating an absurd meaning.

In C, we need SMOOTHLY and PERFECTLY (Adverbs) rather than SMOOTH and PERFECT (adjectives) to modify the verb SHAPED

D has a problem similar to A

E repeats the word WINGS but is idiomatically wrong - the correct idiom is SO X THAT Y
Director
Joined: 30 Jun 2008
Posts: 984
Re: SC : Aircraft Wings  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2008, 04:53
5
the clue lies in reading the full question

when we read the full question, we see the word "them". Now if we see them on an underlined portion we are immediately alerted and we look for the antecedent. Here the problem is reversed. We have them in the non-underlined part, so it is our job to make them point to the correct antecedent.

them can refer to any of the following -- aircraft, aircraft manufacturer's and wings.

Clearly them has to point to wings, so we add the extra wing as in B.
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Director
Joined: 23 May 2008
Posts: 707
Re: SC : Aircraft Wings  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2008, 14:15
amitdgr wrote:
Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

I think E is the best choice becasue the stem says "would", meaning in the future and "having been" establishes that past/future relationship
Manager
Joined: 03 Apr 2007
Posts: 51
Re: SC : Aircraft Wings  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2008, 15:01
Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly --- This sentence requires that we repeat the noun 'wings' for it to have the desired effect in the sentence. Currently, the comma creates a modifier that modifies 'wings' but has a disconnecting effect on the intended meaning of the sentence
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect --- Only an adverb can modify an verb. Smooth and perfect are adjectives trying to modify the verb 'shaped'.
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner --- Same as A
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so --- This is just an ugly sentence. Problem with tense + Same problem as A.

OA is B
VP
Joined: 17 Jun 2008
Posts: 1225
Re: SC : Aircraft Wings  [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2008, 08:05
Legend wrote:
Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly --- This sentence requires that we repeat the noun 'wings' for it to have the desired effect in the sentence. Currently, the comma creates a modifier that modifies 'wings' but has a disconnecting effect on the intended meaning of the sentence
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect --- Only an adverb can modify an verb. Smooth and perfect are adjectives trying to modify the verb 'shaped'.
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner --- Same as A
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so --- This is just an ugly sentence. Problem with tense + Same problem as A.

OA is B

Yes agreed on the OA
I would rather eliminate A since smoothly is not correct used here !!
shaped so perfect and smooth in B is incorrect
D is out
E is awkward !!!
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Manager
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Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build  [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2010, 08:16
2
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly
that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
perfectly so

I could never infer the ans. Can some explain the reason behind the ans. Thanks
Manager
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have  [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2010, 20:05
1
1
ajit257 wrote:
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly
that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
perfectly so

I could never infer the ans. Can some explain the reason behind the ans. Thanks

Ajit, you have this q floating around already in this forum. Try to search it and will provide you deeper insights

You see them in the part of the sentence that is not underlined right, this introduces ambiguity, what does them refer to manufacturers or wings, now B and E solves this by using a resumptive modifier.

Resumptive modifier is nothing but a modifier that is restated such that it avoids any ambiguities. No btwn B and E, perfect use of Idiom So that makes B stand alone
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Location: India
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Strategy
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V40
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have  [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2013, 02:01
mailnavin1 wrote:
ajit257 wrote:

You see them in the part of the sentence that is not underlined right, this introduces ambiguity, what does them refer to manufacturers or wings, now B and E solves this by using a resumptive modifier.

Resumptive modifier is nothing but a modifier that is restated such that it avoids any ambiguities. No btwn B and E, perfect use of Idiom So that makes B stand alone

That's brilliantly explained, was trying to understand this SC problem for quite a few days now..
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Manager
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Concentration: Strategy, Technology
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build  [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2016, 11:03
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings
, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

highlighted is the full sentence with non=highlighted is a modifier which define frictionless wings ........... IMO B

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2018, 04:21
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build &nbs [#permalink] 12 Mar 2018, 04:21
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# Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build

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