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Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for womens equality

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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
Gnpth wrote:
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name: Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico, the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

(A) the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving

(B) Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve

(C) the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits for Sor Juana; going on to achieve

(D) Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits; achieving

(E) the convent was, Sor Juana found, the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of the crucial part of this sentence is that Sor Juana was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico, found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and went on to achieve renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Modifiers + Grammatical Construction

• In a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun; this is one of the most frequently tested concepts on GMAT sentence correction.
• Semicolons and the “comma + conjunction” construction are used to link two independent clauses; commas are used to link an independent clause with a dependent one; comma cannot be used to join two independent clauses.

A: This answer choice incorrectly uses "Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico" to modify "the convent", illogically implying that the convent was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico; the intended meaning is that Sor Juana was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico; remember, in a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun.

B: Correct. This answer choice correctly uses "Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico" to modify "Sor Juana", conveying the intended meaning - that Sor Juana was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico. Further, Option B correctly uses the "comma + conjunction ("and" in this sentence)" construction to join the independent clauses " Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits" and "she went on to achieve renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

C: This answer choice incorrectly uses "Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico" to modify "the convent", illogically implying that the convent was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico; the intended meaning is that Sor Juana was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico; remember, in a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun. Further, Option C incorrectly uses a semicolon to link the independent clause "the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits for Sor Juana" and the dependent clause "going on to achieve renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright"; remember, semicolons and the “comma + conjunction” construction are used to link two independent clauses; commas are used to link an independent clause with a dependent one; comma cannot be used to join two independent clauses.

D: This answer choice incorrectly uses a semicolon to link the independent clause "the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits for Sor Juana" and the dependent clause "achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright"; remember, semicolons and the “comma + conjunction” construction are used to link two independent clauses; commas are used to link an independent clause with a dependent one; comma cannot be used to join two independent clauses.

E: This answer choice incorrectly uses "Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico" to modify "the convent", illogically implying that the convent was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico; the intended meaning is that Sor Juana was born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico; remember, in a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun.

Hence, B is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Phrase Comma Subject" and "Subject Comma Phrase" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the use of punctuation on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~10 minutes):

All the best!
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Y is option D wrong ...?
Can sum1 explain how achieving is different from aim to achieve in this ques?
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shonakshi wrote:
Y is option D wrong ...?
Can sum1 explain how achieving is different from aim to achieve in this ques?

Semi Colon is used to connect Independent Clauses as below -

 Independent Clause ; Independent Clause

Consider the part of this sentence does -

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name : Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico, Sor Juana found the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits ; achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

The red underlined part of the sentence is not an independent clause hence incorrect....

Hope this helps...
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In B and D don't we need "that" after "found"? Seems to me "found convent provided.." sound unclear.
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Konstantin1983 wrote:
In B and D don't we need "that" after "found"? Seems to me "found convent provided.." sound unclear.

Absolutely. If a clause follows, then "that" is required.

I found the scenery beautiful.... correct.
I found that the scenery is beautiful.... correct.

...modified the question accordingly.
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Konstantin1983 wrote:
In B and D don't we need "that" after "found"? Seems to me "found convent provided.." sound unclear.

Hello Konstantin1983, as you are correct.

However, since there is no choice here that has a that after found, this is clearly not being tested in this question. Another official problem where one would have preferred a that after announced.

Trans world Entertainment Corporation, which owns the record Town and Saturday Matinee retail chains announced it was closing up to one fourth of its stores because of poor sales.

Have noticed some other similar questions as well. So, this is not one of the criterion you should use to eliminate answer choices.
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Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name: Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico, the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

A. the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving
B. Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve
C. the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits for Sor Juana; going on to achieve
D. Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits; achieving
E. the convent was, Sor Juana found, the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve

The convent was not born in mexico but Sor Juana was born in Mexico,eliminate A,C and E.
the usage of ';' and then the modifier is wrong because semicolon is ending the clause.elimiate D

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Re: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for womens equality [#permalink]
Hello Everybody,

Regarding to the meaning of the sentences, how should I interpret the usage of the colon in this sentence? What meaning does the colon to the sentence?
Kind regards,
Manuel
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ManuelJesus wrote:
Hello Everybody,

Regarding to the meaning of the sentences, how should I interpret the usage of the colon in this sentence? What meaning does the colon to the sentence?
Kind regards,
Manuel

Hi ManuelJesus ,

Colon is used to explain additional information about the first sentence or some list.

For example,

I bought many gifts for my girl friend : a diamond necklace, a dress and a Big Bag full of chocolates.

or

I got what I worked for: I really earned that promotion.

Here are a couple of rules that you may want to see.

Does that make sense?
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Quote:
ManuelJesus wrote:
Hello Everybody,

Regarding to the meaning of the sentences, how should I interpret the usage of the colon in this sentence? What meaning does the colon to the sentence?
Kind regards,
Manuel

Which colon is being referred to here? There is only a semicolon in D. The terms of the usage of each of these are vastly different. Hence, they should not be mixed up
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daagh wrote:
Which colon is being referred to here? There is only a semicolon in D. The terms of the usage of each of these are vastly different. Hence, they should not be mixed up

Hi daagh Sir,

ManuelJesus meant the colon used between the two sentences below:

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name : Born in the mid-seventeenth century

I think the person wanted to understand the usage of this colon.
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Oh! the one in the non-underlined part? It is a disaster. because the colon's following clause does not portray how her activities in the seventeenth century predated the 19th and 20th century's feminist's movements. The second part simply talks about the nun's development as a poet, philosopher, playwright, and mathematician
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Re: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for womens equality [#permalink]
Gnpth wrote:
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name: Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico, the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

A. the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving
B. Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve
C. the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits for Sor Juana; going on to achieve
D. Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits; achieving
E. the convent was, Sor Juana found, the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve

B. Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve

in the original copy (Verbal Review 2017) "that" is missing. I got confused as I know the idiom is "find that". I understand that is still the best option here, unlike other cases in which the second best option is just a little more wordy. Could anyone explain if "found convent provided"is ok? For me if there is no "that" in this sentence, provided should be followed by "with" and another noun or the provided should be changed to another one.
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daffonso wrote

Quote:
B. Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve

in the original copy (Verbal Review 2017) "that" is missing. I got confused as I know the idiom is "find that". I understand that is still the best option here, unlike other cases in which the second best option is just a little more wordy. Could anyone explain if "found convent provided"is ok? For me, if there is no "that" in this sentence, provided should be followed by "with" and another noun or the provided should be changed to another one.

If a noun or pronoun is found after the relative pronoun word 'that', then one can safely omit the relative pronoun (including who, and which)

The plant that I grow has not been watered for a week -- correct
The plant I grow has not been watered for a week -- correct

On the other hand, if a verb follows the relative pronoun 'that', then one cannot drop the 'that'

The plant that hasn't been watered for a week is going to die -- correct
The plant hasn't been watered for a week is going to die -- incorrect due to double verbing

Of course, we know we can omit both the relative pronoun and the verb, if a participle, either a present participle (verb+ing) or a past participle (verb+ed or verb+en or some other irregular past participle) is used.

E.g: The plant that is not watered for a week is going to die. -- correct
The plant not watered for a week is going to die. -- correct
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Re: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for womens equality [#permalink]
Many thanks for the instructions. I was stuck between B and D.

As some of you explain that D is wrong as it leaves a sentence fragment at the last sentence after the semicolon.

Does the portion after the semicolon have to only modify "found" in "Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits", the previous sentence right before the semicolon?

See an example in which the part after the semicolon is incomplete:

Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem, aiding in the dispersal of cashew, date, and fig seeds; pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help produce tequila by pollinating agave plants.

(a) pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help produce
(b) pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly helping to produce
(c) pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and they indirectly help to produce
(d) they pollinate banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help producing
(e) they pollinate banana, breadfruit, and mango trees: indirectly helping the producing of

OG2018 SC#692 OA is B...

Or it can skip to modify " making" in "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name"?

I can omit the portion after the Colon to "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name, achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright"?

Can this be achieved grammatically?

From the meaning of the sentence, I think it can not modify "make", since Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case before the cause had a name, the following part after colon shows the details how she had made it before the cause has its name?

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Hello MisterD,

MisterD wrote:
As some of you explain that D is wrong as it leaves a sentence fragment at the last sentence after the semicolon.

This is correct. On GMAT SC a semicolon must be followed by an independent clause.

MisterD wrote:
Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem, aiding in the dispersal of cashew, date, and fig seeds; pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly helping to produce tequila by pollinating agave plants.

I agree that in the above-mentioned officially correct sentence, semicolons are not followed by independent clauses. But there is a solid reason for the same.

The sentence above has lists inside the main list. The main lists comprises the three comma + verb-ing modifier

aiding in the dispersal...
pollinating... and
indirectly helping to produce

Now, the first two parallel elements in this main list have list inside them:

Element 1: aiding in the dispersal of

cashew,
date, and
fig seeds

Element 2: pollinating

banana,
mango trees

Please note that commas separate the parallel elements in the "inside list" of the main list. Hence, semicolons have been used to separate the parallel elements in the main list to keep clear distinction between the parallel elements in the main lists and the parallel elements in the "inside list".

MisterD wrote:
Or it can skip to modify " making" in "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name"?

I can omit the portion after the Colon to "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name, achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright"?

Can this be achieved grammatically?

This modification is not possible because as a rule, comma + verb-ing modifiers (action modifiers) cannot skip the preceding independent clause to refer to an action in another independent clause.

Form meaning standpoint also, this modification is not possible because there is no logical connection between the actions of making the case for women's equality and achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

MisterD wrote:
From the meaning of the sentence, I think it can not modify "make", since Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case before the cause had a name, the following part after colon shows the details how she had made it before the cause has its name?

The portion after the colon just provides the context as to how Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz could pursue these intellectual quests.

Now achieving in Choice D is NOT an action modifier because it is preceded by a semicolon and not by a comma. Hence, there is no question of any modification from this part of the sentence.

Choice B is the correct answer for this official problem.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Some preamble can help to set the milieu about this topic in relation to the dropping of the word 'that', which we are aware, has multiple roles to play.

'That' can act as a simple connector joining two related ICs.

Example: I bought a house that I found to be a fruitful investment in the long end'. The two ICs are joined by the subordinate conjunction 'that', which effectively turns the whole sentence into a complex sentence.

However, the point here is that even if you remove the conjunction, it will still make a sensible meaning. Therefore one can easily say that I bought a house I found to be a fruitful investment in the long end.

Now, let's look at the second example.

I bought a house that proved to be a fruitful investment in the end.

Now try to drop the word 'that'. - I bought a house proved a fruitful investment in the long end. - The new version is grammatically wrong because the second clause now has lost the subject and hence is a fragment.

To make life simple, the takeaway is that when you have a noun after the word 'that', we can drop it. However, when you have a verb after the word 'that', we cannot drop the relative pronoun 'that'.

Now let us go to the topic at hand.

In both B and D, "that" is followed by the noun 'the convent" and hence it is ok to drop it.

Quote:
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was making the case for women’s equality long before the cause had a name: Born in the mid-seventeenth century in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico, the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving renown as a mathematician, poet, philosopher, and playwright.

(A) the convent was the perfect environment for Sor Juana to pursue intellectual pursuits, achieving -- wrong because the participial modifier modifies the convent and its being, but not the real achiever that Sor Juana was

B) Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits, and she went on to achieve -- This is good

(C) the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits for Sor Juana; going on to achieve -- a phrase after a semicolon is wrong unless the punctuation tries to separate different arms in a long winding list.

(D) Sor Juana found that the convent provided the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits; achieving -- the same error as in C.

(E) the convent was, Sor Juana found, the perfect environment for intellectual pursuits she went on to achieve-- The sentence says that the convent rather than Sor Juana was born in the mid-seventeenth century.
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