It is currently 19 Oct 2017, 18:50

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen,

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Retired Moderator
Status: 2000 posts! I don't know whether I should feel great or sad about it! LOL
Joined: 04 Oct 2009
Posts: 1635

Kudos [?]: 1105 [0], given: 109

Location: Peru
Schools: Harvard, Stanford, Wharton, MIT & HKS (Government)
WE 1: Economic research
WE 2: Banking
WE 3: Government: Foreign Trade and SMEs
Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 May 2012, 09:44
13
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

45% (01:57) correct 55% (02:00) wrong based on 913 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto. Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere. Since the proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes, astronomers have concluded that the components of Pluto’s atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.

The astronomers’ argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) There is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane.
(B) Until space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible.
(C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.
(D) Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet.
(E) A mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed

Source : LSAT PrepTest 21

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA is C
I agree with the OA. However, I have a doubt with choice A. If we use the negation technique, and we assume that "there is MORE frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane". The conclusion could be weakened. Let me explain:

The argument says that the the RATE OF EVAPORIZATION of each ice (readiness) determines the proportion of each gas in the atmosphere. However, let's suppose that Nitrongen (the most abundant in atmosphere) has the lowest rate of evaporation but it is the most abundant as ice on the surface ( my negation technique). Nitrogen would be the most abundant in atmosphere not by the rate of evaporization, but by the amount of nitrogen on the surphace. The reasoning of the author would be weakened

Thanks!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

_________________

"Life’s battle doesn’t always go to stronger or faster men; but sooner or later the man who wins is the one who thinks he can."

My Integrated Reasoning Logbook / Diary: http://gmatclub.com/forum/my-ir-logbook-diary-133264.html

GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings

Kudos [?]: 1105 [0], given: 109

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Nov 2011
Posts: 303

Kudos [?]: 1226 [1], given: 2

Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 May 2012, 16:47
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
Hi Metallicafan,

It seems as though you are making your own assumption when you defend (A). That for there to be more nitrogen in the atmosphere, there need only be more frozen nitrogen. If that were the case, then the answer could be (A).

Also, I think that when the argument says, "Since the proportion of any gas..." that is a premise upon which the conclusion (the distribution of methane, etc.) is based. When looking for an assumption, we want to find that gap between the premise and the conclusion.

Let me know if that makes sense
_________________

Christopher Lele
Magoosh Test Prep

Kudos [?]: 1226 [1], given: 2

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Nov 2011
Posts: 303

Kudos [?]: 1226 [0], given: 2

Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 May 2012, 14:07
The conclusion states that, in decreasing abundance, the elements on Pluto are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. This conclusion assumes that there are no other elements that would disrupt this ranking. Namely, an element that would vaporize less readily than carbon monoxide or more readily than methane.

Hope that helps!
_________________

Christopher Lele
Magoosh Test Prep

Kudos [?]: 1226 [0], given: 2

Intern
Joined: 22 Feb 2010
Posts: 49

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 1

Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 May 2012, 07:53
ChrisLele wrote:
The conclusion states that, in decreasing abundance, the elements on Pluto are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. This conclusion assumes that there are no other elements that would disrupt this ranking. Namely, an element that would vaporize less readily than carbon monoxide or more readily than methane.

Hope that helps!

I am confused with the wording of C. Using the data, can't we say that Nitrogen is the third gas that vaporizes more readily than carbon monoxide?

I took Choice D to mean that the analogy would hold true for other gases as well. Does not that make it a good choice?

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 1

Manager
Joined: 01 Jan 2013
Posts: 62

Kudos [?]: 31 [0], given: 131

Location: India
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Apr 2014, 22:14
ChrisLele wrote:
The conclusion states that, in decreasing abundance, the elements on Pluto are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. This conclusion assumes that there are no other elements that would disrupt this ranking. Namely, an element that would vaporize less readily than carbon monoxide or more readily than methane.

Hope that helps!

what if the volume of surface elements other than given in premise are very less but they vaporize more readily than these.
Hence they wont affect the rankings.

Kudos [?]: 31 [0], given: 131

Current Student
Status: Everyone is a leader. Just stop listening to others.
Joined: 22 Mar 2013
Posts: 958

Kudos [?]: 1845 [0], given: 229

Location: India
GPA: 3.51
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Apr 2014, 16:46
even if any 4th gas exist, it can fit anywhere without disturbing the order of decreasing abundance.

Nitrogen is more than CO2 \\ CO2 is more than CH4

I am not sure how C is disturbing this order of decreasing abundance ?
_________________

Piyush K
-----------------------
Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to try just one more time. ― Thomas A. Edison
Don't forget to press--> Kudos
My Articles: 1. WOULD: when to use? | 2. All GMATPrep RCs (New)
Tip: Before exam a week earlier don't forget to exhaust all gmatprep problems specially for "sentence correction".

Kudos [?]: 1845 [0], given: 229

Senior Manager
Joined: 17 Sep 2013
Posts: 388

Kudos [?]: 339 [0], given: 139

Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 730 Q51 V38
WE: Analyst (Consulting)
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Apr 2014, 03:33
I see D as a contender too..

1/4 of the Pluto's surface is covered with Nitrogen Ice...1/4 Is Methane and..1/4 is CO2...1/4 is Miscellaneous

Astronomers predict Nitrogen is most abundant followed by methane and CO2..
Basis of Prediction:
As they are present on the surface in Ice forms and the tendency of Nitrogen to vaporize is the highest among the 3..Thus Nitrogen will exist in Pluto's atmosphere and that it will be the most abundant gas

Scenarios:
But what if there is a Volcano emitting Nitrogen gas..Though this fact does not disrupt the ranking..it shows an underlying assumption which is - the astronomers predict that Nitrogen is produced only thru the processes stated in the premise
_________________

Appreciate the efforts...KUDOS for all
Don't let an extra chromosome get you down..

Last edited by JusTLucK04 on 30 Apr 2014, 08:25, edited 1 time in total.

Kudos [?]: 339 [0], given: 139

Intern
Joined: 01 Nov 2016
Posts: 1

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 0

GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V39
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Dec 2016, 12:51
I am fairly certain the OA is incorrect. I'm not seeing the logic at all.

D seems to be the correct answer. The conclusion is the proportions of each gas in the atmosphere. The conclusion is based on the premise that the rates in which the ice from each gas vaporizes establish the proportions in the atmosphere. However, if a gas already exists in the atmosphere, independent of ice on the surface, the proportions in the atmosphere would be different than the rate in which each gas vaporizes.

The assumption that evaporation is the only source of gas in the atmosphere is necessary to infer that the rate at which the gases vaporize determines their proportions in the atmosphere. This would suggest D.

The order of gases listed in C suggests to me that C is incorrect.

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 0

Manager
Joined: 21 Nov 2014
Posts: 55

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 16

Location: India
Schools: ISB '18
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
GPA: 3.7
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Dec 2016, 22:49
thehockeydman wrote:
I am fairly certain the OA is incorrect. I'm not seeing the logic at all.

D seems to be the correct answer. The conclusion is the proportions of each gas in the atmosphere. The conclusion is based on the premise that the rates in which the ice from each gas vaporizes establish the proportions in the atmosphere. However, if a gas already exists in the atmosphere, independent of ice on the surface, the proportions in the atmosphere would be different than the rate in which each gas vaporizes.

The assumption that evaporation is the only source of gas in the atmosphere is necessary to infer that the rate at which the gasses vaporize determines their proportions in the atmosphere. This would suggest D.

The order of gasses listed in C suggests to me that C is incorrect.

I understand what you are saying, but think like this- we know that there IS nitrogen ice on Pluto as per premise (1st sentence). Now if nitrogen has maximum rate of evaporation then, combined with already existing nitrogen vapor, it will remain 1st in that order. Option C, whereas helps in disrupting the order. It is not the ideal choice but best among the lot

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 16

Intern
Joined: 10 Feb 2011
Posts: 3

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 2

Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Mar 2017, 22:00
ChrisLele wrote:
The conclusion states that, in decreasing abundance, the elements on Pluto are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. This conclusion assumes that there are no other elements that would disrupt this ranking. Namely, an element that would vaporize less readily than carbon monoxide or more readily than methane.

Hope that helps!

Hi, what's wrong with option D as an assumption?

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 2

Intern
Joined: 19 Mar 2016
Posts: 45

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 43

Location: India
GMAT 1: 630 Q49 V27
GMAT 2: 730 Q49 V40
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Consumer Electronics)
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 Mar 2017, 17:38
omairanw wrote:
ChrisLele wrote:
The conclusion states that, in decreasing abundance, the elements on Pluto are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. This conclusion assumes that there are no other elements that would disrupt this ranking. Namely, an element that would vaporize less readily than carbon monoxide or more readily than methane.

Hope that helps!

Hi, what's wrong with option D as an assumption?

Option D is totally irrelevant and out of scope. The argument is about the level of 3 gases in Pluto's atmosphere and not solely about the presence of Nitrogen. Option D is more of an additional evidence.
_________________

Please correct me in case I'm wrong; consider giving kudos, otherwise.

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 43

Manager
Joined: 10 Apr 2015
Posts: 205

Kudos [?]: 28 [1], given: 35

GPA: 3.31
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Mar 2017, 06:28
1
KUDOS
Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto. Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere. Since the proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes, astronomers have concluded that the components of Plutoâ€™s atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.

The astronomers' argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) There is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane.
This is part of conclusion which can be inferred, not an assumption to reach the conclusion.

(B) Until space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible.
Irrelevant.

(C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.
The abundance sequence: N2 > CO > CH4
The vaporization seq : N2 > CO > CH4

There is no 'x' such that N2 > CO > x > CH4

If there is any 'x' which satisfies the above condition, then conclusion that N2 > CO > CH4 will be wrong.

So, author has assumed it.

Correct.

(D) Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet.

It is not only true about N2, but also for all of the gases.

(E) A mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed.
Irrelevant.
_________________

In case you find my posts helpful, give me Kudos. Thank you.

Kudos [?]: 28 [1], given: 35

Manager
Joined: 05 Dec 2015
Posts: 113

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 954

Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2017, 22:49
I think only C/D are contenders, but can someone further elaborate on why D is not correct?

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 954

Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen,   [#permalink] 28 Mar 2017, 22:49
Display posts from previous: Sort by