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Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to

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Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to show that, whereas most human beings are right-handed, about half of any given group of animals will be “left-handed” (i.e., showing a preference for their left limbs) and half will be “right-handed.” This finding is suspect, however; it has long been noted that dogs will almost always “shake hands” with the right paw.

Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest defense against the counterexample of dogs that “shake hands”?

(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with the left leg as well as with the right leg.

(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are observing a behavior that dogs perform only with a front paw.

(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a “right-handed world,” but dogs face no analogous difficulties.

(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to compensate for the loss, regardless of whether the limb was lost from the right or left side.

(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are influenced by the behavior of their trainers.

Source: LSAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Originally posted by soniedarshan on 09 Jun 2013, 11:00.
Last edited by broall on 22 Sep 2017, 08:08, edited 2 times in total.
Reformatted question
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2013, 11:13
I'm going with E. This is my analysis:

(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with the left leg as well as with the right leg.
This choice go against the premise. It remains neutral.

(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are observing a behavior that dogs perform only with a front paw.
This does not influence the answer choice at all.

(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a “right-handed world,” but dogs face no analogous difficulties.
Nope

(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to compensate for the loss, regardless of whether the limb was lost from the right or left side.
Does not matter.

(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are influenced by the behavior of their trainers.
Bingo. Since trainers being humans (assuming they're all human beings and not dogs themselves) are mostly right-handed based on the lines in the passage, it is safe to say the dogs imitate their trainers when they learn tricks.
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2013, 11:38
I think E is the correct answer.
con: this finding is suspect. (finding= whereas most human beings are right-handed, about half of any given group of animals will be “left-handed” (i.e., showing a preference for their left limbs) and half will be “right-handed.”)
premise: it has long been noted that dogs will almost always “shake hands” with the right paw.
counter premise: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to show that, whereas most human beings are right-handed, about half of any given group of animals will be “left-handed” (i.e., showing a preference for their left limbs) and half will be “right-handed.”
analysis: it is assumed that dogs almost always shake hands with the right paw because they are right- handed. however if we show that their shaking hands is what they've learned from right handed human beings instead of relating to their brain lateralization, then we defend the argument against the counter example of dogs.


Question stem: Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest defense against the counterexample of dogs that “shake hands”?

(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with the left leg as well as with the right leg. the arguments talks about dogs' shaking hands not leg!

(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are observing a behavior that dogs perform only with a front paw. the argument is discussing about left or right!

(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a “right-handed world,” but dogs face no analogous difficulties. feeling convenience or uncomfortable does not justify the reaction of dogs' shaking hands habit.

(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to compensate for the loss, regardless of whether the limb was lost from the right or left side. out

(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are influenced by the behavior of their trainers. the correct ans
if we show that what we observe from dogs shake hands is a learned habit from right handed human beings instead of being left or right handed it means we reject the counter example of dogs.
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2013, 12:15
petrifiedbutstanding wrote:
I'm going with E. This is my analysis:

(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with the left leg as well as with the right leg.
This choice go against the premise. It remains neutral.

(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are observing a behavior that dogs perform only with a front paw.
This does not influence the answer choice at all.

(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a “right-handed world,” but dogs face no analogous difficulties.
Nope

(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to compensate for the loss, regardless of whether the limb was lost from the right or left side.
Does not matter.

(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are influenced by the behavior of their trainers.
Bingo. Since trainers being humans (assuming they're all human beings and not dogs themselves) are mostly right-handed based on the lines in the passage, it is safe to say the dogs imitate their trainers when they learn tricks.



Good Explaination :-D E it is.
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2014, 08:40
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soniedarshan wrote:
Studies of brain lateralization in animals have
purported to show that, whereas most human beings
are right-handed, about half of any given group of
animals will be “left-handed” (i.e., showing a
preference for their left limbs) and half will be
“right-handed.” This finding is suspect, however; it
has long been noted that dogs will almost always
“shake hands” with the right paw.
Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest
defense against the counterexample of dogs that
“shake hands”?
(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with
the left leg as well as with the right leg.
(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are
observing a behavior that dogs perform only
with a front paw.
(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel
inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a
“right-handed world,” but dogs face no
analogous difficulties.
(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to
compensate for the loss, regardless of whether
the limb was lost from the right or left side.
(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are
influenced by the behavior of their trainers.


I marked Option D) and then I realized that I marked D) because I misinterpreted the argument. The Conclusion is "50% of the animals are left handed and 50% of animals are right handed". Both Option A) and D) are indicating that dogs are ambidextrous (Can use both left and right hand) and doesn't strengthen the argument.

Nice question.
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 08:27
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Studies of brain lateralization in animals have
purported to show that, whereas most human beings
are right-handed, about half of any given group of
animals will be “left-handed” (i.e., showing a
preference for their left limbs) and half will be “righthanded.” This finding is suspect, however; it has long
been noted that dogs will almost always “shake
hands” with the right paw.
Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest
defense against the counterexample of dogs that
“shake hands”?
(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with
the left leg as well as with the right leg.
(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are
observing a behavior that dogs perform only
with a front paw.
(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel
inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a
“right-handed world,” but dogs face no
analogous difficulties.
(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to
compensate for the loss, regardless of whether
the limb was lost from the right or left side.
(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are
influenced by the behavior of their trainers.
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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let us see what the argument says -

Studies
Half the dogs are right handed.

Counter Argument
Dogs shake hands with right paws --> Most of the dogs are right handed.

We have been asked to weaken the counter example. That means we have to say that indeed half the dogs are right handed.

let us look at the answer options -

Option A - Incorrect.
Does not mean that they do not have a preference for the right paw. After all, we use both our hands for various tasks (including scratching itches). Does not mean that we do not have a preference.

Option B - Incorrect.
this has nothing to do with preference for either the right paw or left paw. Irrelevant.

Option C - Incorrect
If they do not have any "stigma", we cannot consider stigma as a reason for - dogs shake hands with right paws. Hence, we cannot reject - "Most dogs are right handed".

Option D - Incorrect.
If they lost a limb, then they do not have a choice. They cannot then express a preference for right paw over the left. They have to make do with whatever they have.

Option E - Correct Answer.
Since most people are right handed (and considering that "shaking hands" is a trick), it is quite natural that dogs are influenced by their trainers. Hence, most of them use right-paw even though they might not be "right handed".
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2017, 01:38
Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to show that, whereas most human beings are right-handed, about half of any given group of animals will be “left-handed” (i.e., showing a preference for their left limbs) and half will be “right-handed.” This finding is suspect, however; it has long been noted that dogs will almost always “shake hands” with the right paw.

dogs show a preference for shaking with the right paw --> finding that mammal handedness is 50/50 is suspect

Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest defense against the counterexample of dogs that “shake hands”?

(A) Dogs are observed to scratch themselves with the left leg as well as with the right leg. -- Still does not address why dogs almost always shake hands with right paw

(B) People who observe dogs “shaking hands” are observing a behavior that dogs perform only with a front paw. -- Still does not address why dogs almost always shake hands with right paw

(C) Left-handed people sometimes feel inconvenienced or even stigmatized in a “right-handed world,” but dogs face no analogous difficulties. -- Irrelevant

(D) Dogs that have lost a limb are able to compensate for the loss, regardless of whether the limb was lost from the right or left side. -- Still does not address why dogs almost always shake hands with right paw

(E) In learning to perform tricks, dogs are influenced by the behavior of their trainers. --gives us a defense of the counterexample because we're told in the stimulus that most human beings are right handed so that explains why dogs almost always shake with their right hands -- it's because they are influenced by their right handed trainers and not because they have a natural preference for their right hand.
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Re: Studies of brain lateralization in animals have purported to   [#permalink] 13 Dec 2017, 01:38
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