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# The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus

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The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 07:32
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The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus occurs, yet surprisingly few of their skeletons show the usual evidence of this disease. The skeletons do show deposits of tetracycline, an antibiotic produced by a bacterium common in Nubian soil. This bacterium can flourish on the dried grain used for making two staples of the Nubian diet, beer and bread. Thus, tetracycline in their food probably explains the low incidence of typhus among ancient Nubians.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. Infectious diseases other than typhus to which the ancient Nubians were exposed are unaffected by tetracycline.
B. Tetracycline is not rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the processes involved in making bread and beer.
C. Typhus cannot be transmitted by ingesting bread or beer contaminated with the infectious agents of this disease.
D. Bread and beer were the only items in the diet of the ancient Nubians which could have contained tetracycline.
E. Typhus is generally fatal.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 08:50
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zz0vlb wrote:
The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus accurs, yet surprisingly few of their skeletons show the usual evidence of this disease. The skeletons do show deposits of tetracycline, an antibiotic produced by a bacterium common in Numbian soil. This bacterium can flourish on the dried grain used for making two staples of Nubian diet, beer and bread. Thus , tertacycline in their food propably explains the low incidence of typhus amoung ancient Numbians.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. Infectious diseases other than typhus to which the ancient Numbians were exposed are unaffected by tetracycline.>>> Out of scope >> Argument is talking about Typhus and tetracycline.
B. Tetracycline is not rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the process involved in making bread and beer.>>> CORRECT >>> argument talks about "less amount of typhus" due to "presence of tetracycline "
C. Typhus cannot be transmitted by ingesting bread or beer contaminated with the infectious agents of this disease.>>> Even if the typhus is transmitted, this is no reason to find NO typhus on the skeleton..!!
D. Bread and beer were the only items in the diet of the ancients Numbians which could have contained tetracycline. >>> Even if there were more items, there is no effect on the argument which talks about "less amount of typhus" due to "presence of tetracycline "
E.Typhus is generally fatal. >>> Out of scope
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2010, 12:13
agree with B here.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2010, 06:32
B for me too. Everything else seems irrelevant. The source of tetracycline is the bacterium present on dried grain and the skeleton has tetracycline, hence, the bacterium did not die during the beer/bread making process.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2010, 07:01
I had to read this stimulus multiple times then by poe, only B stands a chance.

Quote:
Thus , tertacycline in their food propably explains the low incidence of typhus amoung ancient Numbians.

the above is the conclusion. only B seems to be closer.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2010, 10:16
+1 for B.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2011, 00:17
B is defender assumption.

in the book CRITICAL REASONING BIBLE, the most helpful part is assumption and causal relation part. Other parts of the book is not new and not effective.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2011, 08:31
Clean B without hassles.More so the argument does not have reasoning gap too.A defender answer choice,hence.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2011, 08:23
The author suggests that the antibiotic tetracycline was effective against Typhus. He also says that tetracycline is found in the dry grain used to make beer and bread (Nubian staple food).

So the assumption is --> tetracycline is not affected by the cooking / refining processes.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2011, 08:29
If we use the negation rule...we can easily verify that B is the correct choice.

Original Choice: Tetracycline is not rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the processes involved in making bread and beer

Modified / Negated: Tetracycline IS rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the processes involved in making bread and beer (the not is removed)

The negated choice totally destroys the author's rationale for the low incidence of typhus. If Tetracycline is "rendered ineffective" via cooking processes --> then tetracycline present in grains is not the reason behind the low incidence of Typhus.
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2011, 11:00
B, definately
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2011, 03:12
b
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Re: Ancient Nubians inhabited an area - CR [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2011, 20:17
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Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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07 May 2012, 06:36
+1 B

If the tetracycline is not effective when it is in beer or bread, we cannot conclude that the antibiotic helped the Nubians.
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Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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22 May 2012, 11:50
B clearly explains that the process of making staple food doesn't make the antibiotic ineffective.

Hence B it is!
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Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2013, 00:27
I read B and I didn't go further :D
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Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2013, 10:38
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clearly B has to be the assumption.
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Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2016, 12:34
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Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2016, 08:16
B is correct.

A. Infectious diseases other than typhus to which the ancient Nubians were exposed are unaffected by tetracycline. --> we don't care; our concern is typhus here

B. Tetracycline is not rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the processes involved in making bread and beer. -->BINGO!!!; if this is wasn't true, then antibiotic wouldn't have gotten in Nubians' diet and the claim becomes invalid

C. Typhus cannot be transmitted by ingesting bread or beer contaminated with the infectious agents of this disease. --> we're more concerned with antibiotic here than the nature of the disease itself

D. Bread and beer were the only items in the diet of the ancient Nubians which could have contained tetracycline. --> great! doesn't help us

E. Typhus is generally fatal. --> background fact
Re: The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus   [#permalink] 10 Oct 2016, 08:16
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