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The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a

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The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2017, 04:00
10
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A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

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The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.


(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.


What is wrong with option 'C'.
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2017, 11:27
Top Contributor
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If you look at this from the idiom angle, well perhaps A through D are instant outcasts, for it is never possible to estimate something at some precise thing There is always an element of prediction, speculation, guesstimation, or approximation involved in estimation.
Therefore, 'estimate to be' 'estimate that' are better than 'estimate at'. Estimated at is more in tandem with locations and not with numbers at least.

E then is the sole survivor. But one can rest assured such an open and shut question is not going to appear in the reality of GMAT.
The essence of the argument is that if one or two choices had the idiom 'estimated to be' rather than 'estimated at', what would be the correct answer? I give below an edited version in line with the above thought.(I hope MGMAT will have no objection for this practice session. )

The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the
price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st
century.


(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into
space is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated to be a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average
individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy
ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

We now have a 2 estimated at +2 estimated to be +1 estimated that. The question is wide open now to munch.
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2017, 09:12
2
The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the
price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st
century.
Dangling modifier.

(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century. INCORRECT, for the reason mentioned above.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel. INCORRECT IDIOM USAGE

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel. INCORRECT IDIOM USAGE

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated at a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century. INCORRECT IDIOM USAGE

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average
individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy
ticket of transatlantic airplane travel. CORRECT And CLEAR
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2017, 19:40
daagh wrote:
If you look at this from the idiom angle, well perhaps A through D are instant outcasts, for it is never possible to estimate something at some precise thing There is always an element of prediction, speculation, guesstimation, or approximation involved in estimation.
Therefore, 'estimate to be' 'estimate that' are better than 'estimate at'. Estimated at is more in tandem with locations and not with numbers at least.

E then is the sole survivor. But one can rest assured such an open and shut question is not going to appear in the reality of GMAT.
The essence of the argument is that if one or two choices had the idiom 'estimated to be' rather than 'estimated at', what would be the correct answer? I give below an edited version in line with the above thought.(I hope MGMAT will have no objection for this practice session. )

The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the
price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st
century.


(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into
space is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated to be a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average
individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy
ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

We now have a 2 estimated at +2 estimated to be +1 estimated that. The question is wide open now to munch.




Hi Daagh

According to MGMAT guys "estimated at" is not a correct idiom, although there are some doubts on that. Please see the link below

https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t7889.html

That leaves us with C, D and E.

C has "the average individual’s cost". The use of possessive is problematic.

D has "To go into space, the cost to the average individual", which, I think, violates infinitive of purpose.

So E still is the correct answer, IMO.

Please let me know the correct answer and your expert advise.

Best
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2017, 03:26
2
Top Contributor
1
RzS

My edited version: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estim
ated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into
space is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated to be a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average
individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy
ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

If E is the answer for the original topic under issue, then it should be the correct answer for the altered example too, since there is no difference between them. Therefore, you are on the dot.

However, in the other two choices, namely C and D, my point was to highlight the problem in meaning. Please note that the intent of the passage is to compare the anticipated future cost of space travel to the current price of the transatlantic travel. It is not a comparison between the cost of the both the two listed travels in the future time namely by the end of 21st century. The transatlantic cost is of today and that is why E is correct. That is the crux.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

Your reason: C has "the average individual’s cost". The use of possessive is problematic. - Of course, you mean the cost of the individual going into space' is perhaps better.

My reason: You see, the introductory modifier "By the end of the 21st century" stands for both the travel costs at the end of 21st century. The function of an introductory modifier is to modify the entire events that follow. That is substantively different from the original intent. That is why this wrong logically.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

Your reason for D: has "To go into space, the cost to the average individual", which, I think, violates infinitive of purpose.
My reason: 1. in this choice, the future cost trans - Atlantic travel that is by the end of the 21st century is wrongfully compared with the probable future cost of the space trip. Why is this wrong? Because you cannot compare between an unknown space cost with a yet another unknown cost.
2. Dictionally, the average cost of travel is substantively different from the cost to the average individual. This is also a change in meaning.

Am I right?
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2017, 10:19
The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the
price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st
century.

(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated at a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average
individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy
ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

Correct
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2018, 05:33
daagh wrote:
RzS

My edited version: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estim
ated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into
space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into
space is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic
airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated to be a fraction
of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of
the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average
individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy
ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

If E is the answer for the original topic under issue, then it should be the correct answer for the altered example too, since there is no difference between them. Therefore, you are on the dot.

However, in the other two choices, namely C and D, my point was to highlight the problem in meaning. Please note that the intent of the passage is to compare the anticipated future cost of space travel to the current price of the transatlantic travel. It is not a comparison between the cost of the both the two listed travels in the future time namely by the end of 21st century. The transatlantic cost is of today and that is why E is correct. That is the crux.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

Your reason: C has "the average individual’s cost". The use of possessive is problematic. - Of course, you mean the cost of the individual going into space' is perhaps better.

My reason: You see, the introductory modifier "By the end of the 21st century" stands for both the travel costs at the end of 21st century. The function of an introductory modifier is to modify the entire events that follow. That is substantively different from the original intent. That is why this wrong logically.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated to be a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

Your reason for D: has "To go into space, the cost to the average individual", which, I think, violates infinitive of purpose.
My reason: 1. in this choice, the future cost trans - Atlantic travel that is by the end of the 21st century is wrongfully compared with the probable future cost of the space trip. Why is this wrong? Because you cannot compare between an unknown space cost with a yet another unknown cost.
2. Dictionally, the average cost of travel is substantively different from the cost to the average individual. This is also a change in meaning.

Am I right?

Absolutely brilliant explanation for addressing the change of meaning in C. Nicely done modifications to the options too! Thanks for the edited version daagh.
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Re: The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2018, 03:56
vishalkumar4mba wrote:
The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.


(A) The average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

(B) The average individual’s cost by the end of the 21st century of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

(C) By the end of the 21st century, the average individual’s cost of going into space is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.

(D) To go into space, the cost to the average individual is estimated at a fraction of the price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel by the end of the 21st century.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the 21st century the cost to the average individual of going into space will be a fraction of the current price per economy ticket of transatlantic airplane travel.


What is wrong with option 'C'.


MANHATTAN REVIEW OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



The first thing you have to do is figure out what the basic structure of this sentence is. X is Y. Something is estimated. That is critical verb in this sentence. Therefore, you need to find an answer choice that has a matching order of words. Despite the fact that it appears to be fairly complex, there is only one answer that even comes close to that core structure. Choice E is the correct answer. Once you realize what the core is, eliminating the rest of the choices should be fairly simple.
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