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The axis of Earth s daily rotation is tilted with respect to

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The axis of Earth s daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.
(B) If Earth’s Moon were to leave Earth’s orbit, Earth’s climate would be unable to support life.
(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.
(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth’s or Mars’s axis.
(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 04:51
According to the statements, the Earth is tilted at an angle of 23 degree which has been kept stable because of the nearby moon, and without this tilt, the climate would be too extreme and unstable to support life. This has been further supported by an example of Mars, which has very small moons and that cannot stabilize the tilt of the planet and therefore, Mars cannot support life.
Clearly option 'B' extends this thought.
a) talks about Mars but the statement is about the Earth.
c) Its not about a stable moderate axis, its about 23 degree which is missing.
d)The statement does not support or extends the same thought
e) just a general statement.
I vote for 'B'.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 05:01
Between B and D. IMO D

B says unable instead of unstable ==> so I reject it as this is the extreme inference from the stimulus.
D talk's about Earth and Mars. Earth's directly stated (only moon's gravitational influence),
but for mars stimulus states that Mars has small moons which cannot stabilize the tilt ==> that mean there is no or little other gravitation influence on Mars too other than moons.
So D correctly states that. ==> Mars one is little dicey though.

Any opinions?
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Last edited by sudeep on 07 Jun 2009, 05:02, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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I'll vote for B. But I'm little susceptible, since the choice B is too extreme kindda answer. Whats the OA ?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life. - Don't know, there can be other reasons as well.
(B) If Earth’s Moon were to leave Earth’s orbit, Earth’s climate would be unable to support life. Correct
(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life. - extreme answer
(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth’s or Mars’s axis. - only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon
(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life. - extreme answer
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 05:14
I find 'B' the right option because, the passage is talking about earth's moon and not any other factor that might be involved in maintaining the stability of the planet, and it has been further supported by another example of the moon, of a different planet. The answer to this question should be the one which considers just this factor. So, if the Earth's moon leaves the orbit, then the stability of the planet would be disturbed.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 05:17
prinits wrote:
The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?
(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.
(B) If Earth’s Moon were to leave Earth’s orbit, Earth’s climate would be unable to support life.
(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.
(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth’s or Mars’s axis.
(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.


I pick option D.

a) The argument talks about Earth, so Mars is irrelevant
b) It is rather the gravitational influence of the moon that helps keep the angle of roughly 23 degrees. Even though it's true that Earth's climate will be unable to support life when the moon leaves, there's also no guarantee that Earth's climate will continue to support life if the moon is still around. Other factors such as global warming can eventually lead the climate to harm life even when the moon is still around.
c) we don't know whether a stable, moderate axis on other planets can support life, but we do know at least that it is keeping life that already exists on earth.
D) Correct. The argument says, "That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon."
E) We only know about earth. A sample can not represent the whole population. What works for earth may not necessarily works for other planets.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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Don't agree.

tarek99 wrote:
b) It is rather the gravitational influence of the moon that helps keep the angle of roughly 23 degrees. Even though it's true that Earth's climate will be unable to support life when the moon leaves, there's also no guarantee that Earth's climate will continue to support life if the moon is still around. Other factors such as global warming can eventually lead the climate to harm life even when the moon is still around.

The option is just talking about life, in case moon leaves. Its not talking about what happens otherwise.

tarek99 wrote:
D) Correct. The argument says, "That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon."

Th option says "little or no effect on the magnitude ...." whereas argument says "That angle can be kept fairly stable ONLY by the gravitational influence ....", so "little effect" is out.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 05:56
bigoyal wrote:
Don't agree.

tarek99 wrote:
b) It is rather the gravitational influence of the moon that helps keep the angle of roughly 23 degrees. Even though it's true that Earth's climate will be unable to support life when the moon leaves, there's also no guarantee that Earth's climate will continue to support life if the moon is still around. Other factors such as global warming can eventually lead the climate to harm life even when the moon is still around.

The option is just talking about life, in case moon leaves. Its not talking about what happens otherwise.

tarek99 wrote:
D) Correct. The argument says, "That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon."

Th option says "little or no effect on the magnitude ...." whereas argument says "That angle can be kept fairly stable ONLY by the gravitational influence ....", so "little effect" is out.


but it says "little OR no effect." So it's not like they said "and." I just feel that we're making an inference rather than making must be true when selecting option B.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 06:01
oh! I see it now! Option D also talks about Mars, which I've completely missed

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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tarek99 wrote:
oh! I see it now! Option D also talks about Mars, which I've completely missed


yes, but even argument also talks about moons on Mars - "Mars, for example, has only very small moons,", but what I feel is its the auther's extreme language by using "only" in the sentence "That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon". That means that author is saying there is no other gravitational force responsible for this.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 10:05
bigoyal wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
oh! I see it now! Option D also talks about Mars, which I've completely missed


yes, but even argument also talks about moons on Mars - "Mars, for example, has only very small moons,", but what I feel is its the auther's extreme language by using "only" in the sentence "That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon". That means that author is saying there is no other gravitational force responsible for this.


yes I agree. The auther said "only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon." so we know that's the case for earth, but we can't say that it's the same case for Mars. That is why mentioning mars in option D made it incorrect I feel.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2010, 07:41
Question is an Inference

My pick is B. Author never comes out and says this directly but based on the information from the article it can be inferred.

D sounded good at first but I think it's a little out of scope. No where in the argument does the author specifically state that the source of gravity has to be a moon. They just happened to use two examples where the source of gravity involved moons.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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B for me too.
If we say A ==> B, (A leads to B) then the best test is to see whether
B still exists in the absence of A....
That way, we eliminate other causal factors.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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Whats wong with C?

It is just a paraphased part of the stimulus:
The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

Experts please explain.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2010, 05:19
[quote]The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.
(B) If Earth’s Moon were to leave Earth’s orbit, Earth’s climate would be unable to support life.
(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.
(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth’s or Mars’s axis.
(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life./quote]


A. is not supported at all. The paragraph does not say that having a large moon and therefore a stable rotation is sufficient to support life, merely that it is one of the necessary conditions. For this same reason C. is not supported. D. is not supported because it simply is not discussed in the paragraph. E. is similar to A and C., it is possible to have a stable rotation with something other than one large moon.

B. is clearly correct. The Earth's moon is necessary for its stable rotation and support of life.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2010, 05:23
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[i]Whats wong with C?

It is just a paraphased part of the stimulus:
The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

Experts please explain./i]


I am no expert but the key word that makes C. invalid is ANY. Also the assumption is that just because the planet has the necessary precondition of a stable rotation, that it has all the other ingredients necessary for life. There is no reason to assume BASED on these two statements that those other necessary elements are present on every planet.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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ykaiim wrote:
Whats wong with C?

It is just a paraphased part of the stimulus:
The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

Experts please explain.



Even I was looking for C as the answer but soon realized that statement mentions that Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. but does not mentiones that this is not the only reason to support life so if any other planet is having stable and moderate axis tilt but does not have other supportive condition then it does not help.

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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2011, 07:40
prinits wrote:
The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.
-->this may be true hold for now
(B) If Earth’s Moon were to leave Earth’s orbit, Earth’s climate would be unable to support life.
-->sounds good .. hold
(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.
-->pretty extreme statement, eliminate .. what if the planet is so far away from the sun life cannot live? not true all the time
(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth’s or Mars’s axis.
-->extreme statement and seems a bit out of scope
(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.
-->extreme statement..this cannot be proven


Between A and B for me. Went with B because I had more information about Earth and felt more confident with it.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2011, 07:51
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I picked D after narrowing down to B & D. I agree that B should be the answer but I don't like it as the question didn't say anything about the earth's orbit. Doesn't sound like a good GMAT question.
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Re: Earth [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2011, 08:05
bigoyal wrote:
Don't agree.

tarek99 wrote:
b) It is rather the gravitational influence of the moon that helps keep the angle of roughly 23 degrees. Even though it's true that Earth's climate will be unable to support life when the moon leaves, there's also no guarantee that Earth's climate will continue to support life if the moon is still around. Other factors such as global warming can eventually lead the climate to harm life even when the moon is still around.

The option is just talking about life, in case moon leaves. Its not talking about what happens otherwise.

tarek99 wrote:
D) Correct. The argument says, "That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon."

Th option says "little or no effect on the magnitude ...." whereas argument says "That angle can be kept fairly stable ONLY by the gravitational influence ....", so "little effect" is out.

D is incorrect because nothing in the passage has been stated regarding Gravitiational influneces other than that from Moon. We can't make any assumptions regarding gravitiational influences from other sources.
B is the clear answer.
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Re: Earth   [#permalink] 28 Mar 2011, 08:05

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