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The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast

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The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 02:29
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The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast majority of economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.


A. economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

B. economic models, and included models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

C. economic models, included models used by policymakers on issues and ranged from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

D. economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues while ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

E. economic models, models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.
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Re: The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 03:29
IMO A

It just sounded better, I would like if anyone can guide a step by step approach. What’s wrong with BCDE?

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Re: The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 23:47
Someone correct me if I'm off, but economic models here is affected by a dangling modifier. The models the sentence include X, Y and Z.

Hence: The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast majority of economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.
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Re: The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 04:16
The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast majority of economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.


A. economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage. --> correct

B. economic models, and included models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

C. economic models, included models used by policymakers on issues and ranged from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

D. economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues while ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

E. economic models, models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage. --> what is "models" referred to?
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Re: The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 05:06
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Quote:
The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast majority of economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.


A. economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

B. economic models, and included models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

C. economic models, included models used by policymakers on issues and ranged from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

D. economic models, including models used by policymakers on issues while ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.

E. economic models, models used by policymakers on issues ranging from monetary policy to climate change, trade policy and the minimum wage.


One of the most common traps the GMAT likes to introduce in SC questions is to subtly change the meaning being conveyed to catch you out. Remember that the meaning of the sentence always takes precedence when trying to eliminate options.

Option A - There are no immediate errors that jump out so we can't eliminate it. The "including models...." after the comma may seem a bit off, but it just denotes that it is a part of the grand subset of all "economic models" and is therefore okay.

Option B - included makes no sense. There is no need to suddenly switch from simple present (for a general truth) to simple past [this is not a past action]. OUT

Option C - included is wrong for the same reason it is wrong in option B. OUT

Option D - The use of the word while throws the meaning off kilter, since it now suggests the policymakers were ranging from P to Q,R and S. OUT

Option E - This is the trap answer to look out for. It is technically not grammatically incorrect, and seems tempting to pick since it drops the word including and is therefore more concise. However, it is specifically for this reason that it is incorrect, since it suggests that the "models ranging from...." comprise all the economic models that exist. This is incorrect, since these are simply a subset of the models, included in the greater set of all economic models. This subtle shift in meaning is what makes option E incorrect. OUT

The right answer is therefore A.
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Re: The concept of equilibrium is one of the core assumptions in the vast   [#permalink] 26 Feb 2019, 05:06
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