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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had

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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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selene wrote:
Yes I got ^ E ^ as well


I am surpised no-one said A & B are out bcos of the following reason...

by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia

This effectively means " beginning of next year " ..... " including Norway, Mexico, and Russia" which makes no sense. The comma after next year makes "but only if non-OPEC nations" as more a optional clause without which the sentence should complete.

Hence the comma after "next year" needs to disappear.

Didn't you guys notice this.... Or am i thinking too much.... :o :o :o

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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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Jp27 wrote:
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

(A) year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
(B) year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
(C) year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
(D) year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
(E) year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output

I'm happy to help with this. :-)

First of all, Jp27, I appreciate that you want to post the OA after some discussion, but when you post a question, please specify a source. There are many many sources of GMAT SC questions --- some of them (e.g. MGMAT) are exemplary, and some of them are pure trash.

In this question, I would beginning by simplifying just to get a sense of the layout ......
OPEC has been expected to cut output, BUT they said they would cut output ....
That first "but" (in the phrase "but officials of the organization ...") is a strong contrast, and without the end of the sentence, it doesn't make sense --- they were expected to cut output, and they announce they were cutting output --- what's the contrast? The contrast only makes sense if we place a condition in the next part of the sentence "only if"
They were expected to do X, BUT they announce they were going to do X only if blah blah.
The second "but" is awkward and logically incorrect --- both (A) & (B) begin that second phrase with an additional "but" ----
They were expected to do X, BUT they announce they were going to do X but only if blah blah.
That's just plain wrong. (A) and (B) are both out right away.

That leaves us with (C) & (D) & (E). Choice (C) has an awkward and questionably correct construction
"...only if the output .... would be trimmed ..."
First of all, this is passive --- never a boon on GMAT SC. Furthermore, it's in the subjunctive, suggesting a hypothetical situation. See this post for more on the subjunctive mood.
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... ive-tense/
In this particular sentence, there is nothing hypothetical or theoretical! OPEC is playing hardball --- we'll cut output only if you guys cut output. Imagine two people facing some kind of challenge --- eating a jalapeno pepper, jumping a motorcycle over a gulley, etc. ---- person A might say, "I'm going to do it only if you do it." In other words, that language would be very practical and direct. Person A would never say "I am going to do it only if this would be done by you." This latter form is exactly what we have in (C). Choice (C) is an unmitigated disaster that should be taken out back and shot. It is completely wrong.

(D) is active, but it's still in the subjunctive, which suggests contrary-to-fact or hypothetical situation. This is not at all appropriate for the nature of his situation, which involves a challenge --- yeah, we'll cut output, but only if you do also. OPEC is implicitly issuing a challenge to non-OPEC oil producers. A challenge always involves direct simple clear language. We need the simple present test.

(E) is the only one that phrases things in the simple present tense ....
"... only if non-OPEC nations ... trim output..."
It's clear and direct, grammatically correct, and appropriate to the emotional tone of the situation. This is by far the best answer.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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Marcab wrote:
Hii Mike and Hii Plumber250,
isn't it true that we are not supposed to use participle modifiers with comma?

That rule is NOT true. That's too simplistic. Whether a comma should be used or not depends on whether the modifier is vital. See these two blogs:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/

Vital: The old man drinking a cup of coffee is a famous writer.

Non-vital: My good friend, drinking a cup of coffee, did not seem motivated to run 5K with me.

In the first sentence, the phrase is vital because it is helpful in identifying the subject. If we removed this modifier, that could make the identify of the subject less clear. In the second sentence, the subject is my good friend --- no ambiguity: the modifier is descriptive, but not needed to establish identity.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2013, 00:18
mikemcgarry wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction ...
(C) year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
...
Choice (C) has an awkward and questionably correct construction
"[color=#0000ff]...only if the output .... would be trimmed ...
"
First of all, this is passive --- never a boon on GMAT SC. Furthermore, it's in the subjunctive, suggesting a hypothetical situation ...


Another reason why C is not the best choice is lack of parallelism:
C: ... officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare ... if the output ... would be trimmed.
E: ... officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare ... if non-OPEC nations ... trim output.

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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output

POE:
1. use but or only if, otherwise using both will create redundant error.
so option A & B are out.
2. in if ... then(then is hidden in this structure) construction:
if..(followed by)simple present tense ---------------> then ....(followed by) either simple present or simple future
and vice versa is also true.
here then(hidden) is followed by simple future so if should be followed by simple present!!

Option C : the group will pare daily production .... if non-OPEC nations ..would be trimmed (break the rule)
Option D : the group will pare daily production .... if non-OPEC nations ..were trimming output(also break the rule)
Option E : the group will pare daily production .... if non-OPEC nations ..trim output



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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2013, 02:04
Jp27 wrote:
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output

OA after some discussion

Good One; Ex. of IF….THEN, S-V agreement

Particular case (in future) no uncertainty;
If present THEN Future, Here the aforementioned formula is to be used like THEN Future IF present. Hence right answer B. You have also to be careful with the subject verb agreement as in the original sentence verb - were is used referring to the list of non-OPEC nations But in reality the subject of the Clause is -output, hence singular verb needed. Also BUT and ONLY IF show redundancy which needs to corrected by using only if.

Hope that helps


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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2014, 10:09
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day

A. year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B. year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C. year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D. year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E. year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output

As per the explanation given by OG, option B and C are wrong because of passive voice in the underlined portion doesn't state who would trim the prices.

As per my understanding of the meaning, it is not necessary to know the doer of trimming. So I would not have eliminated B and C on the grounds of meaning.

Instructor, please help me understand if option B and C distort the meaning.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA : E

Last edited by carcass on 09 Apr 2014, 12:31, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the title of the qeustion accordingly

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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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Mission2012 wrote:
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day

A. year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B. year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C. year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D. year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E. year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output

As per the explanation given by OG, option B and C are wrong because of passive voice in the underlined portion doesn't state who would trim the prices.

As per my understanding of the meaning, it is not necessary to know the doer of trimming. So I would not have eliminated B and C on the grounds of meaning.

Instructor, please help me understand if option B and C distort the meaning.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA : E


Hi @Mission2012,

Thank you for articulating your question so well. Such good question posts help us identify the gaps in your understanding and that in turn helps you figure out where exactly you are going on.

Let's figure out what is happening with this question.

What is the meaning of the sentence?
Normally I would ask you to tell me the meaning of the sentence but in the essence of time let me give that to you:

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

1: The OPEC was expected to announce reduction in output in order to increase sagging oil prices.
2: But it announced that it will reduce the production to a certain degree only if the non-OPEC nations trimmed their output as well.

So as you can see the action of OPEC nations is contingent upon the action taken by the non-OPEC nations. So clearly the action of trimming of output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day is something for which we need to explicitly know who the doer is. Just by saying that "the output of non-OPEC nations should be trimmed" does not tell us who actually will do this trimming.

I hope this explains why Choices B and C are incorrect.
So in a nutshell, it is very important to understand what the original sentence intends to communicate and then ensure that the correct choice maintains that meaning.

Happy preparation!
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2014, 09:49
Meaning
Although Opec had long been expected to announce reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, OPEC officials announced that they will reduce daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year. The condition for this reduction is that non-OPEC nations, including N,M and R trim their output by a total of 500,000 barrels per day

Error Analysis
Usage of “But” and “Only if” is redundant. Also the conditional tense usage If “present tense- Non Opec Were to trim-use of infinitive” then Future “OPEC Will pare” is not parallel. If”Present” Then “Future” is the correct structure. The use of infinitive is not parallel to verb.

POE
A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output-Explained in error analysis
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed- Redundancy error
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed- Verb Tense error If”Would be trimmed” then”Will pare”. Will pare requires present tense in IF construction
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output- Same as C
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output- Correct Choice
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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 02:24
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
had long been expected
to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but
officials of the organization just recently announced that

the group will pare [Future]
daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year,
but only if
non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia,
were to trim output
by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output [but / only if , both together not req.; were with will doesn't sound correct.]
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed [but & only if together not req. Who will trim??]
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed [who will trim? as per original sentence nON needs to do that]
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output [were trimming with will doesn't sound correct.]
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output [Correct]

Conditional Sentence:
I will go only if he asks me- A and B out.
The group will pare dp only if nON trim output.
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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2015, 11:15
tense
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

bold parts are clear wrong choices for sentence...but only is missing not only (Not X, But Y). A and B out.
C. would be trimmed is not certain which make the meaning somewhat unclear.
D. non-OPEC nations inclues norway, mexico and russia no its more than that, also were trimming is an action ongoing Wrong.
E. clear if non-OPEC nations....trim output then OPEC will do something.

Best Choice: E





duttsit wrote:
26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2015, 11:29
duttsit wrote:
26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output


Can, please, someone explain such thing:
In original sentence we have part officials of the organization just recently announced that and as I understand word announced is a sign of reported speech and we should use one step back in the tense.
Originally it was: "if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output, the group will..."
And in reported speech it should be: "if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trimmed output, the group would..."

Where is problem in my logic?
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
Hi experts/ chetan2u,

I was stuck between C and E, opted for wrong option (C) as I thought here we need subjunctive mood (If....Then clause)

Whats wrong with C. Has it been eliminated because of wordiness.??



hi ,
there are three possiblities of if clause...
1)
type------------- if-clause ---------- main clause
1----------- Simple Present---------- will-future
2----------- Simple Past--------- would + infinitive
3----------- Past Perfect--------- would + have + past participle

so "would will never come in IF CLAUSE..
and that is exactly what C is doing...
.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed..

the sentence follows :-
1----------- Simple Present---------- will-future

hope it clears the air around if then clause
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2016, 12:30
duttsit wrote:
26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output


E is correct.

Its If- then clause.
If "if" clause uses "Present tense" then "then" clause must uses either simple present or future tense or vice versa.
Here then clause, "the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year" uses future tense so only option E uses present tense.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2016, 03:49
duttsit wrote:
26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output

I don't think that but only if is redundant in A. According to me, the problem lies at 2 other places.

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

1. Comma (,) before but denotes that there is a list of 3 or more items but there are only 2 items in list for but. Hence, that comma (,) is wrong.
2. OPEC has announced a condition. Hence, usage of but is wrong. Only if makes it sufficiently clear that the following part is the condition.
2. Were at the end, makes this sentence Hypothetical Subjunctive, which is wrong because it is a condition. E uses it correctly as Command Subjunctive.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2017, 23:39
duttsit wrote:
26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output



The easiest way to answer this Question is to think of the type of If then Constructions:
As per http://gmat-grammar.blogspot.in/2006/06 ... ction.html
Whenever you come across the If .. Then construction in the sentence -- Follow the rule below.

IF Clause Then Clause

Present will + Base Verb

a) If Ram wins... he will give ...........

Past would/could + Base verb

b) If Ram won... he would give........

Past Perfect would/could + have + Participle



In this case.. will pare is Underlined [Future Tense]... Only construction can be a Simple Present Tense in E..

[All options with were to required would in the Then clause which is not the case here... hence E

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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 17:33
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A. year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output

B. year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed

C. year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed

D. year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output

E. year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 18:24
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 18:30
But is redundant and distorts the meaning.between c d e. It's a conditional previous clause is having future tense so need present tense .hence, the answer is E

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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had   [#permalink] 30 Apr 2017, 18:30

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