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The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo

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The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2013, 19:01
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The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.

(E) In a small percentage of cases of osteosarcoma, there is no history of exposure to the SV40 monkey virus.


Original Source: Practice Pill Platform
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2013, 19:58
The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories. It is just an additional info, not relevant to the question.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. Not relevant. Who cares about the changes in the technique (at least not in current context)

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus. I eliminated the option, because it fails to explain any link between the virus and osteosarcoma, hence neither strengthen nor weakens the argument.

(D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40. This provides a link between the vaccine, the virus and osteosarcomas. It support the researchers hypothesis, because no contamination ---- no SV40 traces (My way :-)). IMO this one is the RIGHT choice

(E) In a small percentage of cases of osteosarcoma, there is no history of exposure to the SV40 monkey virus. It's kind of weakening the hypothesis.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2013, 22:59
GMATPill wrote:
The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.

(E) In a small percentage of cases of osteosarcoma, there is no history of exposure to the SV40 monkey virus.


Original Source: Practice Pill Platform


I choose D simply because it made the most references back to the argument. However, I don't get it entirely. The question states that a possible cause of osteosarcomas is virus SV40. To make this argument stronger, wouldn't we want the example in (D) to say something along the lines of: iceland never had infected vaccine --> people never get osteosarcomas? I feel as though as it is now, all answer (D) confirms is the mystery behind what causes osteosarcomas.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2015, 01:06
GMATPill wrote:
The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.

(E) In a small percentage of cases of osteosarcoma, there is no history of exposure to the SV40 monkey virus.


Original Source: Practice Pill Platform



The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

Conclusion-Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

How can the answer be D ?

D is similar to this kind of reasoning-

not A caused not B .... can such reasoning strengthen A caused B ????
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2016, 00:59
I am not too confident with the answer choice D.
D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.
So basically, for the Osteosarcomas in Finland SV40 is not the cause right.
So here we have a sample case that tells that SV40 is definitely not the cause for the cancer, the question was to support the Hypothesis.
I find that D weakens it. specifically if you look at the stem of the question -"Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue"
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2016, 04:27
jodoubt wrote:
I am not too confident with the answer choice D.
D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.
So basically, for the Osteosarcomas in Finland SV40 is not the cause right.
So here we have a sample case that tells that SV40 is definitely not the cause for the cancer, the question was to support the Hypothesis.
I find that D weakens it. specifically if you look at the stem of the question -"Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue"


What the hypothesis states is the source of SV40 and not that SV40 is the cause for cancer.

Looking at D, if cancer samples from Finland did not contain SV40 and the polio vaccine was not contaminated, then this does give a strong indication that elsewhere if cancer samples contained SV40 then the source could have been from contamination of the polio vaccine. This is the hypothesis that is being tested.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2016, 10:08
jodoubt wrote:
I am not too confident with the answer choice D.
D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.
So basically, for the Osteosarcomas in Finland SV40 is not the cause right.
So here we have a sample case that tells that SV40 is definitely not the cause for the cancer, the question was to support the Hypothesis.
I find that D weakens it. specifically if you look at the stem of the question -"Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue"


This is the hypothesis: "Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later." Researchers never believed that the virus was the ONLY cause of the cancer, just a possible contributing cause. But more importantly, the question does not ask you to strengthen the argument that the virus causes osteosarcomas, but that the vaccine caused the virus which was found in osteosarcomas.

Anyway, going back to the hypothesis, it's just asking if the vaccine was the source of the virus that was found in osteosarcomas. Since in Finland the vaccines were not contaminated and their cases of osteosarcomas do not have the virus, choice D strengthens the hypothesis.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2016, 11:16
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Got it wrong initially , but re reading the stimulus once again helps -
Quote:
The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause,

There might be other causes of osteosarcoma !!
Quote:
SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.


suyash23n & Kelzie01 have given wonderful explanation for the question

would just like to elaborate option (D)

D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.

The option means-

Polio vaccine in Finland was not contaiminated ---> People suffered from osteosarcomas ( might be from some of the other causes of osteosarcomas )---->samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.

The option clearly supports the statement " this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later. "
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 10:02
Answer is D
The argument talks about many facts but the important one is that polio vaccine contaminated by SV40 is the cause of osteosarcoma.
Thus we have to look for that option which provides hints for the above possibility.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 14:46
The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bone cancer, is not known. Researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a possible contributing cause, since recent investigations have identified SV40 DNA sequences in tissue samples from osteosarcomas, but no SV40 DNA sequences were found in healthy tissue. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in osteosarcomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.Out of scope

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
what will be done now is out of scope.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.this may prove that the virus is present but does notlinke the virus to the cancer.

(D) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from osteosarcomas do not contain SV40.roves that ther is no other cause of contamination with SV40

(E) In a small percentage of cases of osteosarcoma, there is no history of exposure to the SV40 monkey virus.does not weaken the case.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2017, 04:26
B.
One way to strengthen the causal argument is to show that if cuase does not happen, effect also does not happen. So, it is B.
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Re: The primary cause for osteosarcoma, the most common form of primary bo &nbs [#permalink] 20 Sep 2017, 04:26
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