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The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption

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The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 04 Dec 2017, 03:00, edited 3 times in total.
Added the OA

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2006, 02:27
13. E
14. B

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2006, 06:20
Another 13. E and 14.B.

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2006, 02:46
Can any one explain 13

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2006, 03:36
13. E

Because the author is assuming that the drop was due to an increase in supply. Therefore his argument will only stand if the drop in demand was not the sole cause.

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2006, 07:27
E
and
B

13) is E becase if you negate E, the argument falls apart. POE also got me to E.

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New post 28 Dec 2006, 22:30
yes. E n B.

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New post 29 Dec 2006, 06:49
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

Here author is considering the program failure is the only cause for drop in prices.
13. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.
( If failure of the program is the only cause for drop in prices then it is surely preassumed that " A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price." )

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2006, 16:26
13. By 1st-round POE, A, C and D are eliminated. E seems very relevant. Just remember the typical S-D curves: if price drops it´s because either demand shifted to the left (decreased) or supply shifted to the right (increased). If a drop in demand was not the only cause, it´s because a rise in supply was also a cause => E.

14. If domestic demand increased substantially in 1987, then it could have caused the substantial drop in illegal drugs EVEN IF the control of entry had been successful.

MBA2ran wrote:
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

13. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.

14. The argument in the passage would be most seriously weakened if it were true that

(A) in 1987 smugglers of illegal drugs, as a group, had significantly more funds at their disposal than did the country’s customs agents
(B) domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987
(C) the author’s statements were made in order to embarrass the officials responsible for the drug-control program
(D) in 1987 illegal drugs entered the country by a different set of routes than they did in 1986
(E) the country’s citizens spent substantially more money on illegal drugs in 1987 than they did in 1986

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2012, 20:14
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been
successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

80. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the
country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale
price.

I don't understand the OA because the premises don't talk about the demand at all.
I thought the passage is more focused on whether the program is successful.

Please help.
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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2012, 22:21
uledssul wrote:
I don't understand the OA because the premises don't talk about the demand at all.
I thought the passage is more focused on whether the program is successful.

Please help.


Yeah, GMAT CR is getting a bit tough. They expect you to know the supply and demand relationships. After all as an MBA you should know this. In fact most undergrads do nowadays.

So, Argument here is that program was a failure because WP did not drop.
So, based on the supply and demand, if supply is high price will go down, if demand is low price will go down and vice versa.

In this case the author believes that the program's impact is SOLELY on supply disruption and that demand doesnt factor into the argument. But we know that supply can't exist without demand in the market. So, the correct answer should address the Demand side of the equation.

Hope that helps!

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2012, 07:09
13 - E

We have to strengthen the question

Conclusion: Program to control entry of illegal drugs was failure in 1987

Premise: If program was succes - then wholesale price would have increased or stayed same (not droped) in 1897

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
--> this clearly weaken the conclusion

(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
--> Out of scope - dont know price paid of avg consumer

(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
--> Domestic production increase will increase the amount of illegal drugs but doesnot strengthen the conclusion to control entry of illegal drugs.

(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
--> this clearly weaken the conclusion

(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.
--> the author says that drop in prices = program success. Someother thing caused the drop in Prices such as there are still lot of illegal drugs entring the country which are causing increase in volumn of those drugs (doesnot matter if the demand increase or decrease) and hence low proices; therefore strengthen the conclusion.

using ANT

"A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 is the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price." - this sentence directly contradict the conclusion. If drop in demand -> drop in price -> case programe success we can conclude that the program actually was a success and not a failure.



14 - B (weaken)

(A) in 1987 smugglers of illegal drugs, as a group, had significantly more funds at their disposal than did the country’s customs agents
--> out of scope (argument is not talking about the funds)

(B) domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987
--> we can says that the program was not a failure, the drop in prices was due increase in domastic production.

(C) the author’s statements were made in order to embarrass the officials responsible for the drug-control program
--> out of scope (argument is not talking about official response)

(D) in 1987 illegal drugs entered the country by a different set of routes than they did in 1986
--> strengthen the conclusion.

(E) the country’s citizens spent substantially more money on illegal drugs in 1987 than they did in 1986
--> Outof scope (argument is not talking about the 1986)

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 07:22
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
B. The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
C. Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
D. The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
E. A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.
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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 08:34
Sasindran wrote:
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
B. The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
C. Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
D. The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
E. A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.



E is the assumption

Conclusion : X (program) failed, so Y happened(price drop)
Reason : Program failed, So more drugs were brought into the country, supply and demand is high, so price reduced.

Assumption 1 : Only X caused Y.
Assumption 2 : no other caused Y.

E states the Assumption 2. If we negate E, argument fails.
Quote:
negation : E. A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.

Negated statement tells that other thing caused Y.
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New post 09 Nov 2017, 08:40
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

13. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987. not according to the argument. Incorrect
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.Same reason as A.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.Irrelevant. Might even undermine the argument
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987. Not according to argument
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.Eliminates alternative explanation. Correct

No rogue idea in the argument. The gist of the argument is: failure to stop entry of illegal drugs into the country led to the collapse in the wholesale price of most illegal drugs. The author is basically saying that this and only this was the reason for the drop in prices. So the correct assumption will defend the logic of this reasoning by eliminating any possible causes fora drop in wholesale prices. Only E does that.

Kudos if you like the answer :-)
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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2017, 23:55
MBA2ran wrote:
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

13. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.


Hi VeritasPrepKarishma,

I understand that negating E will directly lead to the conclusion falling apart. However, can you please talk about C too ?

Thanks!

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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2017, 10:53
MBA2ran wrote:
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

13. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.


While, generally, answering Critical Reasoning questions does not require the use of any sophisticated knowledge, understanding the logic of some Critical Reasoning questions requires a basic understanding of the economic laws of supply and demand. This question is such a question.

For anyone who is not familiar with the laws of supply and demand, here is a basic summary:

If the supply of a good increases and all other factors are held equal, normally the price of the good decreases. Conversely, if the supply of a good decreases, normally the price increases.

Demand affects price in the opposite way. If the demand for a good increases and all other factors are held equal, normally the price of the good increases. If demand decreases, normally the price decreases.

Now, let’s analyze the argument in this question.

The argument mentions a “program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country.” This program is related to the laws of supply and demand in that the purpose of the program is to reduce the supply of illegal drugs in the country by controlling the entry of the drugs.

As discussed above, a reduction in supply should result in an increase in price, but the argument indicates that “the wholesale prices of most illegal drugs… dropped substantially.” In other words, even though there was a program meant to reduce supply, the prices fell.

Since one would expect that a reduction in supply would result in price increases rather than price decreases, the author of the argument reasons that since the prices decreased, supply must not have decreased, and therefore, the argument concludes, the program must have failed.

Now, let’s go to the answer choices to see which the author assumed in coming to that conclusion.

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.

Since the conclusion of the argument is that the program to reduce supply failed, this answer choice is not an assumption required for coming to that conclusion but rather is a statement in opposition to the conclusion.

(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.

This answer choice is incorrect in two ways.

The first is that the author is not concerned with the prices consumers pay, i.e., the retail prices of illegal drugs. The author is concerned with wholesale prices of illegal drugs and has already made the case that supply did not drop by pointing to the drop in wholesale prices.

The second is that the conclusion states that the program to reduce supply failed. Any drop in prices of illegal drugs would be consistent with that conclusion. Therefore, clearly, the argument does not rely on the assumption that the retail prices of illegal drugs did not drop.

(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.

This answer choice could be tempting because an increase in domestic production of illegal drugs would result in an increase in supply, even if there were a program in place to reduce supply from foreign sources by controlling entry of drugs into the country.

So, this answer choice could explain why, even though there was a program to reduce supply, the prices of illegal drugs decreased; supply from domestic sources could have offset any reduction in supply achieved by the program to limit entry.

However, we are not looking for an explanation. We are looking for an assumption. So, this choice is not our answer.

(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.

The conclusion of the argument is that a program to reduce supply failed. Since a reduction in supply would push prices upward, price increases would indicate that the program to reduce supply had not failed but instead had succeeded. So, the conclusion does not depend on assuming that any prices of illegal drugs increased.

(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.

Correct. The argument’s conclusion, that the program to reduce supply failed, is based on the fact that the prices of illegal drugs dropped. In arriving at its conclusion, the argument relies on the assumption that there was not some other reason for the decreases in the prices of illegal drugs. Therefore, that a drop in demand was not the sole cause of the price drop is an assumption upon which the argument depends.

The correct answer is E.
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Re: The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the-assumption [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2017, 03:01
MBA2ran wrote:
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.

The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country.
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price.


The only choice that must be true in order to conclude legitimately from the drop in wholesale price of illegal drugs that the program was a failure is choice E, the best answer. If the drop in price was caused by a drop in demand, there is no reason to suspect that there has been any increase in supply caused by drugs entering the country.

The other choices can be false without affecting the argument. The supply of illegal drugs need not have dropped (choice A), and the retail price could have dropped (choice B). The entry of illegal drugs could have risen at a higher rate than domestic production (choice C), and no illegal drug need have undergone a substantial price rise (choice D).
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