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The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball

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The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 06:21
1
11
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A
B
C
D
E

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  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (01:26) correct 46% (01:18) wrong based on 398 sessions

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The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball, like those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated by a desire to make the sport more interesting to watch.


(A) those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(B) those to the rules governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(C) those to the rules which govern professional gymnastics, were motivated

(D) the amendments to the rules governing professional gymnastics, have been motivated

(E) the amendments governing professional gymnastics, were being motivated

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Re: The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 06:30
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+1 for B.

(A) those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(B) those to the rules governing professional gymnastics, were motivated --> Correct, Maintains parallel construct

(C) those to the rules which govern professional gymnastics, were motivated

(D) the amendments to the rules governing professional gymnastics, have been motivated

(E) the amendments governing professional gymnastics, were being motivated

Hence, B.
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The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 01 Aug 2018, 07:51
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The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball, like those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated by a desire to make the sport more interesting to watch.


(A) those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(B) those to the rules governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(C) those to the rules which govern professional gymnastics, were motivated

(D) the amendments to the rules governing professional gymnastics, have been motivated

(E) the amendments governing professional gymnastics, were being motivated

The first point is that the use of simple past is inapt because actions or their impacts that permeate from the past into the current, the use of present perfect is the more appropriate choice. It doesn't matter as much when the actions happened as to whether their impact is still being felt.
A, B, C, and E fall to this nuance. See, the amenedments are to the rules and not to the sports as such.

D for me.
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Originally posted by daagh on 31 Jul 2018, 09:05.
Last edited by daagh on 01 Aug 2018, 07:51, edited 1 time in total.
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The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2018, 06:20
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Hi!

Scanning through the choices, we can see that there are two big issues in this question:

1) the comparison at the beginning; and
2) the verb tense at the end.

Regarding the comparison, all comparisons must be both logically and stylistically parallel. In the original sentence, we compare "recent amendments to the rules governing baseball" to "those governing professional gymnastics"; in other words, we're comparing amendments to rules, which is illogical. Eliminate (A).

Scanning the choices:

B) compares amendments to "those to the rules", i.e. other amendments - all good!

C) compares amendments to "those to the rules", i.e. other amendments - all good! However, (C) changes "governing" to "which govern", disrupting the parallelism of the sentence (the first part of the comparison has "governing") - eliminate (C).

D) compares "the amendments" to "the amendments" - all good!

E) compares "amendments to the rules" to "amendments governing professional gymnastics" - the amendments don't govern, the rules do - eliminate (E).

Now let's scan (B) and (D) for another difference. (B) ends in "were motivated" and (D) ends in "have been motivated". Are there any clues in the original to make us think this is an ongoing action? No, in fact we have two reasons to believe that the action is discrete:

1) "the recent amendments" is all in the past; and
2) the original sentence uses "were motivated".

Changing the verb to "have been motivated" changes the meaning of the sentence, a big no-no in SC. Accordingly, eliminate (D) and choose (B)!
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Re: The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2018, 04:37
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Bunuel wrote:
The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball, like those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated by a desire to make the sport more interesting to watch.


(A) those governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(B) those to the rules governing professional gymnastics, were motivated

(C) those to the rules which govern professional gymnastics, were motivated

(D) the amendments to the rules governing professional gymnastics, have been motivated

(E) the amendments governing professional gymnastics, were being motivated


KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



Like marks the comparisons, this time between the amendments to the rules governing baseball and those to the rules governing gymnastics. The trick in the sentence is that there are three pieces to the comparison: the first is the amendments, the second is the rules, and the third is the sport. The first sentence parallels only two: "those governing gymnastics" parallels the sports and the rules (implied by "those") but not the amendments. Eliminate (E) as well because it parallels the first and third pieces but drops the second, the rules. You can look at the final verb in the choices to eliminate (D); were is better than have been since the action has been completed and have been suggests that it's still happening. The only difference between (B) and (C) is rules governing or rules which govern. The options seem more or less equal, but since the initial piece of the comparison mentions rules governing, the second piece needs to parallel that structure. (B) wins.

An 800 test taker is careful not to exclude or add items when working with comparisons. She knows that the objects of the comparison must always have grammatical structures that are perfectly consistent with each other.
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Re: The recent amendments to the rules governing professional baseball  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2019, 01:49
D is the correct answer. All of the others are in simple past tense. That tense is inappropriate because the sentence is about something in the past, whose effects are felt in the present day.
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Re: The recent amendments to the rules governing professional  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2019, 08:01
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Re: The recent amendments to the rules governing professional   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2019, 08:01
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