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The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co

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The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Sep 2019, 18:04
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 269, Date : 15-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often confused but should be carefully distinguished. In the first sense, it means a process of thought or reasoning by which the mind passes from facts or statements presented, to some opinion or expectation. The data may be very vague and slight, prompting no more than a guess or surmise; as from the trick of a man’s face entertain some prejudice as to his character. Or the data may be important and strongly significant, like the footprint that frightened Crusoe into thinking of cannibals, or as when news of war makes the city expect that Consols will fall. These are examples of the act of inferring, or of inference as a process; and with inference in this sense Logic has nothing to do; it belongs to Psychology to explain how it is that our minds pass from one perception or thought to another thought, and how we come to conjecture, conclude and believe. In the second sense, ‘inference’ means not this process of guessing or opining, but the result of it; the surmise, opinion, or belief when formed; in a word, the conclusion: and it is in this sense that Inference is treated off in Logic. The subject-matter of Logic is an inference, judgment or conclusion concerning facts, embodied in a proposition, which is to be examined in relation to the evidence that may be adduced for it, in order to determine whether, or how far, the evidence amounts to proof.

Logic is the science of Reasoning in the sense in which ‘reasoning’ means giving reasons, for it shows what sort of reasons are good. Whilst Psychology explains how the mind goes forward from data to conclusions, Logic takes a conclusion and goes back to the data, inquiring whether those data, together with any other evidence (facts or principles) that can be collected, are of a nature to warrant the conclusion. If we think that John Doe is of an amiable disposition, that water expands on freezing, or that one means to national prosperity is popular education, and wish to know whether we have evidence sufficient to justify us in holding these opinions, Logic can tell us what form the evidence should assume in order to be conclusive. But whatever facts constitute the evidence, they must, in order to prove the point, admit of being stated in conformity with certain principles or conditions; and of these principles or conditions Logic is the science. It deals, then, not with the subjective process of inferring, but with the objective grounds that justify or discredit the inference.

1. What is the primary purpose of the passage?

(A) To explain the different connotations of inference
(B) To discuss how inference lays the foundation for Logic to work on
(C) To critique the commonly held belief that Logic works on Psychology alone
(D) To establish a relationship between Logic and Psychology
(E) To point out the role of Psychology in the art of inference


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship between Psychology and Logic?

(A) Logic is superior to Psychology.
(B) Psychology and Logic both are types of Inferences.
(C) Logic helps us evaluate whether the evidence used is sound and Psychology helps us evaluate whether the conclusion arrived at is sound.
(D) Psychology helps explain the thought process in arriving at a conclusion whereas Logic helps validate whether this thought process is correct.
(E) Logic is a more accurate science than Psychology because the latter is based on the use of assumptions.


3. As described in the passage, each of the following could be an example of Inference in terms of its first connotation, EXCEPT:

(A) A man taking shelter under a tree upon noticing dark clouds in the sky
(B) A child dropping a glass jar that shatters into pieces
(C) A child smiling when he sees his mother come towards him with a box of chocolates
(D) A driver bracing himself against the seat on noticing that the car’s brakes have failed
(E) A dog wagging its tail at the smell of food



4. The passage states which of the following about Logic?

(A) Logic is often embodied in a proposition.
(B) Logic helps explain how we arrive at a conclusion from some evidence.
(C) Logic is a subjective form of Inferring.
(D) Logic can help evaluate the veracity of a conclusion.
(E) Logic helps us arrive at valid conclusions.


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Originally posted by dcummins on 10 Aug 2019, 01:00.
Last edited by gmat1393 on 10 Sep 2019, 18:04, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2019, 19:21
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2019, 10:01
Please provide explanation
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2019, 10:52
Please mention question number you are referring to.

Thnx

RohanBhagat94 wrote:
Please provide explanation

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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2019, 15:52
1
I'm happy to post the explanations, but no one has had a shot at answering. First have a shot then i'll post.
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2019, 22:08
1
All correct in 7 mins, including 4 mins to read
Para 1- 2 different senses in which 'inference' is used
Para 2- Logic and Psychology - how they work

1. What is the primary purpose of the passage?
(A) To explain the different connotations of inference - incorrect, the word 'connotation'(hidden meaning) makes it incorrect
(B) To discuss how inference lays the foundation for Logic to work on - Correct
(C) To critique the commonly held belief that Logic works on Psychology alone - incorrect
(D) To establish a relationship between Logic and Psychology - incorrect, the relationship is not the primary purpose as it is too narrow in scope
(E) To point out the role of Psychology in the art of inference- incorrect

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian ,MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , VeritasPrepErika , other experts - can option A be a valid contender if we change 'connotations' to 'meanings'? (I understand that para 2 does talk mostly about logic and how it works.)


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship between Psychology and Logic?
(D) Psychology helps explain the thought process in arriving at a conclusion whereas Logic helps validate whether this thought process is correct.
Whilst Psychology explains how the mind goes forward from data to conclusions, Logic takes a conclusion and goes back to the data, inquiring whether those data, together with any other evidence (facts or principles) that can be collected, are of a nature to warrant the conclusion.

3. As described in the passage, each of the following could be an example of Inference in terms of its first connotation, EXCEPT:
In the first sense, it means a process of thought or reasoning by which the mind passes from facts or statements presented, to some opinion or expectation. The data may be very vague and slight, prompting no more than a guess or surmise; as from the trick of a man’s face entertain some prejudice as to his character.

(A) A man taking shelter under a tree upon noticing dark clouds in the sky - incorrect, here we can see that man upon noticing dark clouds expects thunderstorm/rain to follow and thus takes shelter
(B) A child dropping a glass jar that shatters into pieces - Correct
(C) A child smiling when he sees his mother come towards him with a box of chocolates - incorrect, here the child expects that the box of chocolate is for him/her
(D) A driver bracing himself against the seat on noticing that the car’s brakes have failed - incorrect, here the driver expects a crash to occur
(E) A dog wagging its tail at the smell of food - incorrect, the dog excepts that it might be provided with food
Answer B

4. The passage states which of the following about Logic?
(D) Logic can help evaluate the veracity of a conclusion. - Correct

Logic takes a conclusion and goes back to the data, inquiring whether those data, together with any other evidence (facts or principles) that can be collected, are of a nature to warrant the conclusion.
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2019, 23:09
Got 3/4 correct in 8:30 minutes.
Difficulty Level?
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 01:27
Difficulty Level

Question #1: 750

Question #2: 650

Question #3: 600

Question #4: 650

Overall : 650

ArihantJain18 wrote:
Got 3/4 correct in 8:30 minutes.
Difficulty Level?

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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 05:16
My Query is from Question 4.

Read the line in the passage : "Logic takes a conclusion and goes back to the data, inquiring whether those data, together with any other evidence (facts or principles) that can be collected, are of a nature to warrant the conclusion"

From the above line the answer seems to be :
Option(B) ie "Logic helps explain how we arrive at a conclusion from some evidence"
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 06:28
Question 1, option A cannot be the answer as the passage is not only talking about inferences but also about the relationship between logic and inference. Option A only talks about inferences, hence, it can be deemed incorrect.
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2019, 10:32
OE :

Passage Map
P 1 – To explain the two different connotations of Inference
P 2 – To elaborate on one of these connotations by describing the relation
between Logic and Inference
1. Answer: B
Explanation:
The author first discusses the two connotations of Inference and then
goes on to talk of Logic as a science which bases itself on the second
of these connotations. The rest of the passage further discusses this
connection between Logic and Inference. Thus, (B) is the correct
answer.
(A) This is limited only to para 1.
(C) The author never critiques anything in the passage.
(D) Psychology is mentioned only in connection with the first
connotation of Inference.
(E) Same as D.
2. Answer: D
Explanation:
The opening lines of the second para state that Psychology explains
how the mind goes forward from data to conclusions whereas Logic
helps validate whether it is warranted to arrive at that conclusion. (D)
states this best and is the correct answer.
(A) The passage never states or even hints at this.
(B) In fact, neither of these terms is a type of inference.
(C) Incorrect, as explained above.
(E) The accuracy of either Psychology or Logic is never discussed
in the passage.
3. Answer: B
Explanation:
In its first connotation, Inference is concerned with the thought
process of arriving at a conclusion from some evidence. Each of the
options does this except B, which merely states a fact. Nobody is
inferring anything in this case. Hence, (B) is the correct answer.
(A) The man has assumed that it will rain.
(C) The child has assumed that the box of chocolates is for him.
(D) The driver has inferred that the car will crash.
(E) The dog has inferred that it will get the food.
4. Answer: D
Explanation:
The last sentence of the passage clearly states that Logic helps us
evaluate whether the conclusion we have arrived at is correct or not.
Thus, (D) is the correct answer.
(A) Distortion. The passage actually states that it is facts that are
embodied in a proposition.
(B) This is the role played by Psychology.
(C) Opposite. The last sentence of the passage clearly states that
Logic is based on objective grounds.
(E) Logic can’t help us arrive at conclusions; it can only help us
evaluate these conclusions.
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Re: The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often co   [#permalink] 02 Sep 2019, 10:32
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