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# There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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23 May 2009, 08:44
(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.
-- I have checked 1000CR doc. OA is B
See the bolded part. that's enough to strengthen the argument.
(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.
-- Other categories are out of scope.
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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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26 May 2009, 03:41
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.
-- I have checked 1000CR doc. OA is B
See the bolded part. that's enough to strengthen the argument.
(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.
-- Other categories are out of scope.

thanks for pointing it out...
i think there was a misprint in the original doc..
B seems to be the right one..

thanks.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2009, 19:32
skg wrote:
There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it would be most important to establish which of the following?

(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.

(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.

(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.

(D) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded.

(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

Premise: Great deal of geo variation of many surgeries, for instance, in hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

Conclusion: much of the variation of all sugeries are due to unnecessary surgical procedures.

Support to conclusion: other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies, the rest of the surgeries are performed unnecessarily. Hence Option C.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2009, 20:11
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Expert's post
For me, B is clear and typical for GMAT:

[Cause: surgical procedures] --?-> [result: variation]
We need: there is no other cause (but surgical procedures) that results in [variation]

At the same time, C is also a typical trap: it says something about other surgical procedures (out of scope), but we consider here the variation in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.
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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2009, 06:37
B it is. If you can eliminate all other factors that could cause variation in the number of surgical procedures such as, incidence of a disease in a certain area, meaning that no one area is more prone to a particular disease than any other area, then you can speculate that the variation in cases of these surgical procedures must be due to unnecessary surgeries.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2010, 12:40
This problem is in Guide for Verbal Review. While I do understand B is the correct answer. Why is A wrong?

I don't see why procedures controlers wouldn't help in identify if procedures are unnecessary. The explanation in the book even states that this answer "undermines" the claim about unnecessary procedures.

I tried reading the passage, question and answer choice A many times, I still don't get why it is considered the opposite answer!

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2010, 02:06
This problem is in Guide for Verbal Review. While I do understand B is the correct answer. Why is A wrong?

I don't see why procedures controlers wouldn't help in identify if procedures are unnecessary. The explanation in the book even states that this answer "undermines" the claim about unnecessary procedures.

I tried reading the passage, question and answer choice A many times, I still don't get why it is considered the opposite answer!

They would, but it would not strengthen the conclusion that variation is the result of unnecessary procedures. So you are looking for a premise or piece of evidence that connects a variation in geography to the conclusion. You have to remember that a missing premise has to bridge the gap between the two. You are right A would allow you to find which are unnecessary but you are not looking to identify then, but something that proves the variation is due to unecessary proceduers. All A does it find out which were and which werent. And you are right E needlessly brings in the generalization to all operations making it out of scope.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2011, 11:20
Baten80 wrote:
There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.
To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it would be most important to establish which of the following?
(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.
(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.
(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.
(D) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded.
(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

Please use the search function ....This Q has been discussed so many times...
Its a clean B

frequency-of-surgical-procedures-81284.html

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2011, 07:31
i will choose B for this CR...
the text says unnecessary sugeries caused variations...

(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.

if variation is related to factors which is the reason for the doctor decide if the surgery's necessary, the conclusion will fail...

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2012, 21:57
There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures-up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand people among different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies，prostatectomies，and tonsillectomies.

To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures，it would be most important to establish which of the following?

(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary．

(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves)that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered．

(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure(other than hysterectomies，prostatectomies，and tonsillectomies)that are often performed unnecessarily．

(D) For certain surgical procedures，it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded�

(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tosillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

"It would be most important to establish which of the following?"
Does it ask the assumotion of the conclusion ?

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2012, 22:26
3
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No, this is not an assumption question.

The question asks us to identify the option which will best allow us to determine whether much of the variation in surgical procedures across geographies is due to unnecessary surgical procedures.

A: Incorrect. Even if a local board reviews for the necessity of surgical procedures, we have nothing here to tell us whether they end up recommending unnecessary surgical procedures
B: CORRECT. If the variation is unrelated to factors related to the incidence of diseases, then it must be a result of incorrect recommendations being made
C: Incorrect. Even if a large number of surgical procedures are incorrectly recommended, we do not have enough information to conclude that the variation is a result of these
D: Incorrect. If it is difficult to determine whether the procedures were necessary, it will be more, and not less difficult to determine the need for them
E: Incorrect. Similar to C.

(B) is therefore correct.
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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 13:07
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Hi e-gmat,

My analysis:

There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures — up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand people between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

Conclusion:

Unnecessary surgical procedures => Geographical variation.

Premise:

Variation in frequency of MANY surgical procedures.

Now the author makes a jump and says that the cause of variation is "Unnecessary procedures". However, there could be other causes as well.

Hence , the assumption.

The other factors which affects the incidence of diseases that require surgery procedures are same everywhere.

And so the answer is (B).

My Query:

I don't understand the OE for option (E). from VR2:

(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

E Th e argument involves only the three kinds of surgery cited in the passage, so this statement is irrelevant to the conclusion.

Question: Isn't "-" acts just as a modifier and expands on the MANY surgical procedures.
Doesn't argument talk about MANY procedures instead of ONLY 3 as mentioned by OE for option (E).

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 10:58
To establish that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it is necessary to eliminate the possibility that the geographical variation reflects variation in the incidence of disease treated with these procedures. Choice B, if established, would eliminate this possibility and is thus the best answer. Review boards (choice A) would provide some control against unnecessary procedures, so choice A would, if anything, tell against the suggested conclusion. Neither choice C nor choice E bears on the conclusion, since neither the conclusion nor the cited geographical variation involves procedures are of the kind choice D
describes, the difficulty of determining an individual operationâ€™s necessity would merely increase the difficulty of verifying the suggested conclusion.
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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2014, 21:14
MartinMag wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 55
Page: 138
Difficulty:

There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures тАУ up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedure, it would be most important to establish which of the following ?

A)A local board of review to each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.
B)The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.
C)There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.
D)For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded.
E)With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

A caused B
Biggest assumption is,
B did not cause A.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2014, 21:10
To establish that the unnecessary procedures were responsible for higher frequency one has to assume that no other factors were responsible and Option B states exactly that.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2015, 06:55
IMO B because of following reason:

As per my pre-thinking there can be two reason for this variation:
1)The disease due to which mentioned surgery is done,is prevalent in some geography i.e suppose if the disease is prevalent in india then of course the surgery will take place numbers of times but if the disease is not that common in US then surgery will not take place numerous numbers of time.

2)Might be possible that the procedure of surgery in some geographical location has problem,may be at those location the infection is prevalent while surgery,leading to repeated surgeries.

So as per my pre-thinking i got my option 2 among the answers.

Plz give kudos if you have liked my answer.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2016, 05:57
Like Word problems in algebra, it is very important to assimilate the questions in CR and then simplify them in common terms

THE QUESTION IS
There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures - up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedure, it would be most important to establish which of the following ?

A)A local board of review to each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.
B)The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.
C)There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.
D)For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded.
E)With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

The question is making us to pick the assumption, which is noting but an understated premise. SO we have to pick an answer that is the assumption made to derive the conclusion. This argument can be simplified and broken into premises and conclusion as follows :-

Premise 1 ) There is a huge variation in number and type of surgeries in a country. Location A has 300 eye surgeries, Location B has 200 heart surgeries and Location C has 400 kidney surgeries.
Premise 2) ----- NOT GIVEN------
NO OTHER PREMISE IS GIVEN. WE ARE DIRECTLY GIVEN A CONCLUSION AND ASKED TO PICKED THE MISSING PREMISE 2

CONSLUSION ) These surgeries were unnecessary.

If you look at Premise 1 only, you might conclude that many people in location A are suffering from eye disease. Population of Location B suffers from a heart disease, and Location C has some disease that is affecting the kidneys of many people. That is the reason there is no much variation in each location and its disease type. These diseases must be dangerous if not treated urgently.

But then comes the conclusion that say :- THE SURGERIES WERE UNNECESSARY.
Now, If we add a premise such as :- This variation is not caused due to the difference in number of people suffering from eye, heart and kidney disease.

How does our argument now looks like ?? ==>
Premise 1 ) There is a huge variation in number and type of surgeries in a different parts of the country.
Premise 2) This variation in surgeries is NOT because different people suffer from different disease in different location.
Conclusion) If these variations are not because people were suffering==> then these surgeries were unnecessary.
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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 12 Jul 2016, 10:34, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2016, 09:48
walker wrote:
For me, B is clear and typical for GMAT:

[Cause: surgical procedures] --?-> [result: variation]
We need: there is no other cause (but surgical procedures) that results in [variation]

At the same time, C is also a typical trap: it says something about other surgical procedures (out of scope), but we consider here the variation in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

In this question, we are not considering only "hysterectomies, prostatectomies and tonsillectomies", but rather "surgical procedures" in general.

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2017, 03:35
Wow, this question broke my streak of correct answers. In the 2016 verbal review, this is the 51st question and I had got everything right until this question. Can someone shed some light on the difficulty level of this question? Also, I am listing the what in the question stumped me.
1) The language is complicated and does not get to the point. Breaking down what is said to derive a simple and meaningful premise and conclusion was tough for me.
2) As I couldn't break it down into a concrete premise and conclusion, I didn't know what to look for in the answer options.

Many people seem to have realised that the variation could be caused by different incidence rates in different geographies. I thought along the lines of different levels of technology in different geographies, which may have led to these procedures being performed, which are unnecessary when you compare two geographies with different levels of advanced technology to deal with these diseases.

Cutting to the chase, if I encounter such a question where I don't understand the premise, conclusion and answer options clearly, what is the best strategy to employ?

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Re: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of ma [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2017, 08:04
demblr wrote:
Wow, this question broke my streak of correct answers. In the 2016 verbal review, this is the 51st question and I had got everything right until this question. Can someone shed some light on the difficulty level of this question? Also, I am listing the what in the question stumped me.
1) The language is complicated and does not get to the point. Breaking down what is said to derive a simple and meaningful premise and conclusion was tough for me.
2) As I couldn't break it down into a concrete premise and conclusion, I didn't know what to look for in the answer options.

Many people seem to have realised that the variation could be caused by different incidence rates in different geographies. I thought along the lines of different levels of technology in different geographies, which may have led to these procedures being performed, which are unnecessary when you compare two geographies with different levels of advanced technology to deal with these diseases.

Cutting to the chase, if I encounter such a question where I don't understand the premise, conclusion and answer options clearly, what is the best strategy to employ?

Hi demblr,

unnecessary surgical procedure (Cause) ------->>> Variation (Effect)

Any other Factor (apart from unnecessary surgical procedure) ------>> Variation???? NO!!!

So the to conclude that it is unnecessary surgical procedure that causes variation author has assumed that there no other factor that does that.

Quote:
Cutting to the chase, if I encounter such a question where I don't understand the premise, conclusion and answer options clearly, what is the best strategy to employ?

In such a situation just move on rather than keep on staring at argument, choice and question stamp again and again. BUT if you think you have been pacing very fast in test and have plenty of time then close your eyes for a second and give the question fresh attempt. If at your second attempt also you do not understand a question then just leave it for others to try...probably they will get that wrong too if the question is so weird :D

Also - it is better to understand the question stamp correctly and not move on to argument without that and similarly do not look at choices if you don't understand argument itself. because try the whole question afresh after wasting more than 2-3 minutes already ain't a good idea. rather read the argument and understand it in a go else move on
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